Sunday, September 6, 2009

Vijaynagar kingdom

Lotus Palace, Vijaynagar

Foundation of Vijaynagar kingdom (1336 – 1646 CE):
Vijaynagar kingdom was one of the important kingdoms in the medieval Indian history. Vijaynagar Dynasty rules over India for 3 centuries. It is a history full of wars with Bahamani and other muslim rulers of northern Deccan, collectively said as Deccan sultanates.

Vijayanagara is in Bellary District of northern Karnataka. It is the name of the now-ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagar Kingdom which extended over the southern part of India that included the territories of Mysore, Trichinopally, Kanara, Pondicherry, Chingalpet and Kanchivaram.

Two brothers Harihara (Hakka) I and Bukka Raya laid the foundation of the Vijaynagar city, which was on the South bank of Tungabhadra River near Anegudi Fortress. They were also known as Sangama brothers. Vijaynagar Empire consolidated under Harihara I and began to expand and prosper under Bukka Raya which was more defensible and secure for its location between 14th and 16th century. It is said that a sage Madhav Vidyaranya and his brother Sayana were the inspirational source for this empire. The rulers were strict worshipers of the Hindu Gods and Goddess, but also tolerant towards the other religions. The emperors were great patrons of art and culture. The region influenced a development in the streams of music, literature and architecture. Many temples built in the territories of the south represent the style of Vijaynagar kingdom. The economy of the region flourished and several coins were introduced during the reign of the rulers of the Vijaynagar Empire.

Kings of Vijaynagar Dynasty:
There were four dynasties ruled over Vijaynagar -- Sangama Dynasty, Saluva Dynasty, Tuluva Dynasty and Aravidu Dynasty.

Sangama dynasty (1334 – 1646CE) was the first to rule over Vijaynagar kingdom. Hariharan I and Bukka established Vijaynagar kingdom when Tughlaqs lost his power in Deccan. But its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan Sultanates.

Sangama Kings List:
*Harihara I (1336 – 1356 CE) :
He is known as Hakka and Vira Harihara I. He was the founder of Vijaynagar Empire, which was at south based in the Deccan Plateau. He was Bhavana Sangama’s eldest son, belonged to the Kuruba (or Kurumas are Dhangaras in Southern states of India) and was the founder of the Sangama dynasty. [Some people believe that he was from Yadava clan]When he came to the power, he immediately built a fort at Barkuru which is at the west coast of present day of Karnataka. It is concluded from the inscriptions that he was administering the northern parts of Karnataka at Gutti, Ananthpur district from his seat during 1339 period of time.

Harihara was controlling northern portion of Hoysala kingdom. After death of Hoysala Veera Ballala III, he took full control over its entire range during 1343. He was famous by the names Karnataka Vidya Vilas (master of great knowledge and skills), Bhashegetappuvarayaraganda (punisher of those feudatories who don't keep their promise), Arirayavibhada (fire to enemy kings).

Kampana governed Nellur region, Muddppa administered Mulabagalu region, Marappa oversaw Chandragutti and Bukka Raya was his second in command. So overall his kingdom was well organized.

*Bukka Raya I /Bukka (1356-1377 CE)
Bukka Raya ruled the kingdom for about twenty one years. The kingdom prospered and continued to expand as Bukka Raya conquered most of the kingdoms of southern India, continually expanding the territory of the empire. He defeated the Shambuvaraya Kingdom of Arcot and the Reddis of Kondavidu by 1360 and the region around Penukonda was annexed. He defeated the Sultanate of Madurai in 1371 and extended his territory into the south all the way to Rameswaram. His son, Kumara Kamapna campaigned with him and their efforts were recorded in the Sanskrit work Madhuravijayam written by his wife Gangambika. By 1374 he had gained an upper hand over the Bahmanis for control of the Tungabhadra-Krishna doab and also took control of Goa, the kingdom of Orissa (Orya) were also captured and Bukka forced the Jaffna Kingdom of Ceylon and Malabar to pay tributes to him.

During his reign Bukka would also have clashes with the Bahmani Sultans. The first was during the time of Mohammed Shah I and the other during the time of Mujahid. It is said that Bukka also sent a mission to China during his reign.

Bukka died in about 1380 and was succeeded by Harihara II. It is also notable that under Bukka Raya's reign the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire established itself at Vijayanagara, on the south side of the river, which was more secure and defensive than their previous capitol at Anegondi. Even with the wars and internal conflicts, Bukka still managed to help support internal improvements for the city. Important works of literature were also written during his rule. Dozens of scholars lived under the guidance of Vidyaranya and Sayana. Sayana's commentary on the Vedas, Brahmanas and Aranyakas was written under the petronage of Bukka.

*Harihara Raya II (1377-1404 CE)
During his reign, Harihara II continued to extend the kingdom's territory through fighting against the Reddis of Kondavidu for control of the coastal Andhra between Nellore and Kalinga. From the Reddis of Kondavidu, Harihara II conquered the Addanki and Srisailam areas as well as most of the territory between the peninsula to the south of the river Krishna, which would eventually lead to fights in Telangana with the Velamas of Rachakonda. Harihara II took advantage of the death of Mujahid Bahmani in 1378 and extended his control into the northwest, controlling such ports as Goa, Chaul, and Dabhol.

Harihara ruled from the capital Vijayanagara now more popularly known as Hampi. What is believed to be the ruins of Harihara’s palace is located among the Hampi ruins.
He patronised Kannada poet Madhura, a Jaina. An important work on Vedas was completed during his time. He earned the titles Vaidikamarga Sthapanacharya and Vedamarga Pravartaka.

*Virupaksha Raya (1404-1405CE)
With the death of Harihara II, the throne for the Vijayanagara Empire was disputed among his sons, including Deva Raya I, Bukka Raya II, and Virupaksha Raya. Virupaksha Raya would only rule for a few months before being murdered by his sons and then succeeded by Bukka Raya II who would rule for two years before he himself would be succeeded by Deva Raya I. As his rule was only for a few months, Virupaksha's reign was not marked with any significant events or changes, though it is noted by the traveler Fernao Nuniz that Virupaksha Raya lost a lot of the kingdom's land to the Muhammadans such as Goa, Chaul, and Dabhol and that Virupaksha himself was cruel and as Fernao Nuniz wrote, "caring for nothing but women and to fuddle himself with drink"

*Bukka Raya II (1405-1406 CE)
After the death of Harihara II the succession of the thrown was disputed among Harihara II's sons. Virupaksha Raya managed to rule for a few months before he was murdered by his own sons. After Virupaksha's death, Bukka Raya II succeeded him as emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire. However, similar to his brother before him, Bukka Raya II only reigned for a short time period before he too would be overthrown by his brother, Deva Raya I.

*Deva Raya I (1406-1422 CE)
After Harihara II died there was a dispute between his sons for the throne of the Vijayanagara Empire in which Deva Raya I eventually come out as victor. Throughout his reign, Deva Raya was continually fought against the Velamas of Telangana, the Bahmani Sultan of Gulbarga, and the Reddis of Kondavidu and the Gajaptis of Kalinga. Even so, Deva Raya was be capable of managing the vast amount of territory that he controlled. After his death, Deva Raya was be succeeded by his sons Ramachandra Raya and Vijaya Raya.

*Ramachandra Raya (1422 CE)
Ramachandra Raya was the son of Deva Raya I who became king of the Vijayanagara Empire after his father's death in 1422. Throughout his reign there were no recorded significant changes in territory or major events. Afterwords, he would be succeeded by his brother, Vijararaya, in the same year who was not noted for doing anything significant.

*Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya (1422-1424 CE)
Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya was the son of Deva Raya I and succeeded his brother, Ramachandra Raya, in 1422 as the king of the Vijayanagara Empire. Similar to Ramachandra Raya, Vijaya Raya is not known for doing anything significant and his short reign ended in 1424 when he was succeeded by his son, Deva Raya II.

*Deva Raya II (1424-1446 CE)
Deva Raya II succeeded his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya after his short uneventful two year reign was a monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire. Unlike his father, Deva Raya II was an effective and successful monarch. During his reign, Deva Raya II prevailed over his conquest of Kondavidu in 1432, repelled the invasions of Ahmad Shah I of the Bahamanis and retained the Mudgal fort in 1436 but lost some areas in the Raichur doab in 1443, defeated the Gajapati of Orissa three times in 1427, 1436 and 1441, restored the Reddi Kingdom of Rajamahendri to its former position, fought against the Sultan Ala-Ud-Din, and continued onwards to Kerala where he defeated the ruler of Quilon as well as other chieftains. He invaded Lanka and collected rich tributes there. The ruler of Calicut and even the kings of Burma ruling at Pegu and Tanasserim paid tributes.

*Mallikarjuna Raya (1446-1465 CE)
Mallikarjuna Raya succeeded his father Deva Raya II, who had brought prosperity throughout the Vijayanagara Empire as well as a golden age for the Sangama Dynasty. However, Mallikarjuna Raya was unlike his father, and was generally a weak and corrupt ruler.
At the beginning of his reign he defended the kingdom from the attacks of the Bahamani Sultan and the Raja of the Hindu kingdom of Orissa, but thereafter it was marked by a string of defeats: the Gajapatis conquered Rajamahendri in 1454, Udayagiri and Chandragiri in 1463 and the Bahamani kingdoms took over much of the Vijayanagara Empire by 1450 and grew closer to the capital, while at the same time the Portuguese arrived in southern India, seizing many of the ports on the western coast that the Vijayanagara Empire had once controlled.
These events eventually led to the decline of the Sangama Dynasty; Mallikarjuna Raya's cousin Virupaksha Raya II took the opportunity to seize the throne, though he failed to prove a better ruler.

*Virupaksha Raya II (1465-1485 CE)
Virupaksha Raya II succeeded his uncle, Mallikarjuna Raya, a corrupt and weak ruler who continually lost against the empire's enemies. Throughout his reign, Virupaksha was faced with rebellious nobles and officers as well as multiple enemies who began to invade the weakened kingdom. It was during this time that Virupaksha Raya II lost the Konkan coast (including Goa, Chaul, and Dabul) by 1470 to Prime Minister Mahamud Gawan from the Bahamani kingdom, which was sent to conquer the area by the Sultan Muhammad Shah III. Virupaksha became increasingly unpopular and ignited many of the empire's provinces to rebel, eventually leading up to Virupaksha's death in the hands of his own son, Praudharaya in 1485. Praudharaya himself was not able to salvage the kingdom but fortunately, an able general Saluva Narasimha took control of the empire in 1485 and helped to prevent its demise, though this change of power would mark the end of the Sangama Dynasty and the beginning of the Saluva Dynasty.

*Praudha Raya (1485 CE)
He was an unpopular king of Vijayanagara Empire who ruled for a very short period of time being driven out of the capital by his able commander Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya in 1485.
He wrote Ratiratnapradipika, a book on erotics.
Temple Art

Saluva Dynasty (1485- 1505 CE)
One of the ruling dynasty from Vijaynagar Empire of Southern India. Saluva Dynasty had given three kings during their period.
The Saluva Dynasty was created by the Saluvas who by historical tradition were natives of the Kalyani region of northern Karnataka. The Gorantla inscription traces their origins to this region from the time of the Western Chalukyas and Kalachuris of Karnataka. The term "Saluva" is known to lexicographers as "hawk" used in hunting. They later spread into the east coast of modern Andhra Pradesh, perhaps by migration or during the Vijayanagara conquests during the 14th century.

The earliest known Saluva from inscriptional evidence in the Vijayanagara era was Mangaldeva, the great grandfather of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya. Mangaldeva played an important role in the victories of King Bukka Raya I against the Sultanate of Madurai. His descendents founded the Saluva Dynasty and were one of the ruling lines of the Vijayanagara Empire of Southern India. Three kings ruled from 1485 to 1505 after which the Tuluva Dynasty claimed the throne. They ruled almost the entire South India with Vijaynagar as their capital.

Saluva Kings list :
*Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya (1485-1491 CE)
After the death of Virupaksha Raya II and arrival of Prauda Deva Raya as the new monarch of Vijayanagar, the empire plunged into neglect and anarchy. Seeing that a military coup was the only hope to save the kingdom, he despatched the son of Tuluva Isvara, Tuluva Narasa Nayaka to the imperial capital of Vijayanagara. The incumbent king Prauda Raya fled thus starting the rule of Saluva Narasimha.

As king, Saluva Narashima tried to expand the empire, though he continually faced difficulties caused from rebelling chieftains. By 1491, he lost Udayagiri to Gajapati Kapilendra while the Chiefs of Ummattur in the Mysore region, Saluvas of Hadavalli and Santharas of Karkala from coastal Karnataka region, Srirangapatna and Sambetas of Peranipadu in Cuddapah still remained threats to the empire.

Saluva Narashima's war with the Gajapatis over Udayagiri in 1489 proved disastrous when he was taken prisoner and released later after giving up the fort and surrounding areas. However he was successful at conquering the western ports of Kannada country of Mangalore, Bhatkal, Honnavar and Bakanur. This success enabled him to trade for swift horses with the Arabs. He took more efforts in the upkeep of his cavalry and army in general.

Saluva Narashima eventually died in 1491. However, at the time, his sons were too young to ascend to the throne. Because of this, the sons were left to the care of Narasa Nayaka, a loyal general and minister from the Tuluva family.

*Thimma Bhupala (1491CE)
He was the elder son of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, the King of Vijayanagara Empire. During the reign of his father, he was holding the office of Yuvaraja. Prince Thimma succeeded his father in 1491 but was soon murdered by an army commander during a period of political unrest in Vijayanagara. He was succeeded by his younger brother Narasimha Raya II.

*Narasimha Raya II (1491-1505 CE)
or Immadi Narasimha or Dhamma Tammaraya was the second son of King Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya. Narasimha Raya II succeeded by his elder brother Thimma Bhupala. Though he was a crowned king of Vijayanagara Empire, the real power lay in the hands of the empire's able commander Tuluva Narasa Nayaka till his death in 1503. Narasa Nayaka, under the pretence of his safety, kept him in confinement at Penukonda. In 1503, after the death of Narasa Nayaka, his eldest son Viranarasimha Raya became the regent of the empire. In 1505, Narasimha Raya II was murdered in Penukonda and Viranarasimha Raya proclaimed himself king.

Tuluva Dynasty (1491 – 1570 CE)
This is known as a third Dynasty which ruled Vijaynagar Empire. The dynasty was named "Tuluva" because they belonged to the Tulu speaking region called "TULUNAD" and their mother tounge was "Tulu" language. They were originally from Karnartaka. Tuluva Dynasty was one of the ruling lines of the Vijayanagara Empire of Southern India. It had given five emperors for the Vijaynagar kingdom and was ruled with Vijayanagara capital. Krishna Deva Raya was the most famous ruler of their period. The empire attained it greatest glory of time.

Tuluva kings list:
*Tuluva Narasa Nayaka (1491-1503 CE) who belonged to the Bunt community (Tulu speaking forward class Matrilineal Hindu community beloning to the Nagavanshi Kshatriya, order found mainly in southern coastal Karnataka) was the able commander of the Vijayanagar army under the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya and the de-facto sovereign during the nominal rule of the sons of Saluva Narasimha.
After the death of King Saluva Narasimha, crown prince Thimma Bhupala was murdered by an army commander. The faithful Narasa Nayaka then crowned the other prince, Narasimha Raya II but retained all administrative powers in order to bring stability to the kingdom. He was called the rakshakarta (protector) and svami (Lord). He held the offices of the senadhipati (commander-in-chief), the mahapradhana (Prime Minister) and the karyakarta (agent) of the king. He successfully kept the Bahamani Sultans and the Gajapatis away from the kingdom and quelled many rebellions by unfaithfull chieftains, trying to exert their independence.

*Viranarasimha Raya (1503-1509 CE) who belonged to the Bunt community became the king of Vijayanagar empire after the death of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka. The younger Krishnadevaraya was the king's half brother.
The death of their capable father Tuluva Narasa Nayaka resulted in feudatories rising in rebellion everywhere. At first, Immadi Narasa Nayaka, the eldest son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka became king and lasted at the throne for two years before being assassinated. Viranarasimha Raya was next crowned in 1505 and spent all his years fighting rebel warlords.
When on his death bed, legend has it that Viranarasimha Raya requested his minister Saluva Thimma (Thimmarasa) to blind Krishnadevaraya so that his own eight year old son could become king of Vijayanagar. Thimmarasa however brought a pair of she-goat eyes to the king and informed him that he had Krishnadevaraya killed. However there is no record to prove anything but a friendly relationship between the two half brothers and that the coronation of Krishnadevaraya was a smooth one.

*Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1529 CE)
Sri Krishna Deva Raya was the most famous king of Vijayanagara Empire. He belonged to the tuluva bunt community. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as a hero by Tuluvas, Kannadigas and Telugus, and one of the great kings of India. Emperor Krishna Deva Raya also earned the titles Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana, Mooru Rayara Ganda (meaning King of three kings) and Andhra Bhoja. Krishna Deva Raya was assisted in administration by the very able Prime Minister Timmarusu, who was revered by the king as a father figure and was responsible for his corronation. Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Nagala Devi and Tuluva Narasa Nayaka an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who later took control of the reign of the empire to prevent it from disintegration. The king's coronation took place on the birthday of Lord Krishna and his earliest inscription is from July 26, 1509 CE. He built a beautiful suburb near Vijayanagara called Nagalapura in memory of his mother.

*Achyuta Raya (1529-1542 CE) who belonged to the Bunt community was a ruler of a Vijayanagara Empire of South India. He was the younger brother of Krishna Deva Raya, whom he succeeded in 1529. Upon his death, the succession was disputed. His nephew, Sadashiva, finally became king while yet a child, under the regency of Aliya Rama Raya, a son-in-law of Krishnadevaraya.

The time when Achyuta Raya became the king was by no means a favorable one. The peace and prosperity of the halcyon days under Krishnadevaraya were coming to an end. Feudatories and enemies were waiting for an opportunity to bring down the empire. In addition, Achyuta Raya had to contend with the powerful Aliya Rama Raya, who was competing for the throne.
While the works of Nuniz speak very lowly of Achyuta Raya as being a king given to vices and cruelty, there is enough evidence to prove that the king was indeed noteworthy in his own right and fought hard to keep the prosperity of the kingdom alive. He had been handpicked by Krishnadevaraya himself as an able successor.

Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur invaded and captured the Raichur doab. However the Gajapati's of Orissa and Quli Qutub Shah of Golconda were defeated and pushed back. Now Achyuta Raya along with his general Salakaraju Tirumala went on a southern campaign to bring the chiefs of Travancore and Ummatur under control. This they did successfully. Then they invaded the doab north of Tungabhadra and recaptured the forts of Raichur and Mudgal.

The two Sanskrit works Achyutabhyudayam and Varadambikaparinayam describe the kings life and rule in detail.

Throughout his rule, Achyuta Raya had to contend with the manipulations of Rama Raya who in his powerful capacity had replaced many of the faithfull servants of the Kingdom in high ranking positions with men of his own favour. On more than one occasion the Bahamani Sultans were brought in to play the role of mediator between the king and Ailya Rama Raya in the game of power sharing. This would further weaken the kingdom. In 1542 Aliya Rama Raya imprisoned Achyuta Raya in a coup and made Sadasiva Raya the new regent. Aliya Rama Raya became the de-facto king and let very little governance in the hands of Sadasiva Raya.

The Tiruvengalanatha Temple was built at Vijayanagara during his reign. It has become popularly known by his name as Achyutaraya Temple, rather than by the name of the deity Lord Venkateshwara to whom the temple was dedicated.

*Sadashiva Raya (1542-1570) who belonged to the Bunt community was a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire, a powerful South Indian empire based in the Deccan in 16th century India.
When the Vijayannagara ruler, Achyuta Raya died in AD 1541, his son, Venkatadri, succeeded him. He was a weak ruler and six months later his cousin, Sadasiva, became king. Sadasiva Raya was controlled by his minister Rama Raya, the de facto king, who restored the Vijayanagara empire's power which had diminished after the rule of Krishna Deva Raya. Rama Raya's strategy was to play the Deccan Sultanates against each other by first allying with one and then another.

Aravidu Dynasty (1542 – 1586 CE)
This was the fourth and last Hindu dynasty which ruled Vijaynagar Kingdom in South India. Rama Raya was the regent of Tuluva kingdom’s last king. Tirumala was the founder of Aravidu kingdom. The attack of combined Muslim forces from Bijapur led the Ram Raya to be dead at the battle of Rakasa at Tangadi or Taikota in 1565 and destructed the Vijaynagar kingdom.

The main rulers of the Aravidu dynasty:
The Aravidu Dynasty was the fourth and last Hindu dynasty which ruled Vijayanagara Empire in South India. Its founder was Tirumala, whose brother Rama Raya had been the masterful regent of the last ruler of the previous dynasty. Rama Raya's death at the Battle of Rakasa-Tangadi (also known as the Battle of Talikota) in 1565 led to the subsequent destruction of Vijayanagar by the combined forces of the Muslim states of Bijapur.

*Aliya Rama Raya or Rama Raya, (1542-1565 CE) popularly known as "Aliya" Rama Raya, was the progenitor of the "Aravidu" dynasty of Vijayanagar Empire. This dynasty, the fourth and last to hold sway over the Vijayanagara Empire, is often not counted as a ruling dynasty of that empire, for reasons delineated below. Rama Raya patronised the Sanskrit scholar Rama Amatya.

*Tirumala Deva Raya (1565-1572 CE) was the first Crowned King of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Aravidu Dynasty. He was the brother of the Aliya Rama Raya and son-in-law of Krishna Deva Raya.

When Rama Raya was killed in the Talikonda battle in 1565 he immediately emptied the treasury and fled the capital to taking with him the Royal family and the minor crown prince Sadasiva Raya.

He, after a few years of hardships, reestablished the Vijaynagar rule in Penukonda, in present day Andhra Pradesh. During this time the Southern Nayakas of Madurai and Gingee declared partial independence, while some others rebelled over Tirumala Deva Raya’s authority.

In 1567 he encountered another attack by the Bijapur Sultan; this time the Sultan was defeated, but also lost some territories. Tirumala Deva Raya later tactfully approved the new status of Southern Nayaks, who still paid some tributes and held him as their emperor. Tanjore and Mysore rulers still paid the annual tributes while Madurai and Gingee rulers grudgingly followed.

Tirumala Deva Raya also retained most of the Vijaynagar territories and assumed the title “Reviver of the Decadent Karnataka Empire”. In 1570 he split the Viceroyalty among his three sons: Sriranga I in Penukonda in charge of Telugu country, Rama (father of Sriranga II) in Sritrangapatna in charge of the Kannada country and Venkatapathi (a.k.a. Venkata II) in Chandragiri in charge of Tamil country. Penukonda was the Capital of the empire. The King retired in 1572 after feeling too old to rule and retired to a religious life of living till 1578.

*Sriranga I/Sriranga Deva Raya (1572-1586 CE) was the king of Vijayanagara empire, from 1572-1586. He carried the restoration of the Vijayanagara Empire, but his reign was marred with repeated attacks and loss of territories from his Muslim neighbours.
In 1576, Ali Adil Shah laid siege to his fort in Penukonda for three months, but at the end Sriranga I bought out the Adil Shah’s Hindu lieutenants which helped his commanders defeat the Sultan’s army.

In 1579, Sultan’s new commander Murari Rao, a Maratha Brahmin, launched a sudden plundering operation heading a large Muslim army. His hordes began systematically ravaging the territory south of the River Krishna with great ferocity.

Chennappa Nayaka , a general of Recherla Velama dynasty was sent to defeat the Golkonda raiders but the magnitude of Atorcities committed by the invaders alerted Sriranga I who also hurried to parry the attack. Murari Rao and his Golkonda raiders were defeated, Murari Rao was pursued by Chennappa who captured and imprisoned him in a cage. By 1580, Sriranga I turned the tide and started chasing the Golkonda army northwards recovering the territory they had seized. Sriranga I generously spared the life of Murari Rao because of his brahminical origins.

Ibrahim Qutb Shah, the new Sultan was furious and decided to settle the matters himself and invaded Kondavidu with the rest of his army and took the Udayagiri fort. Then he launched a massive raid on Udayagiri and slaughtered the locals, but Sriranga I kept the fight on and repulsed Sultan’s army from Udayagiri after an initial retreat. Unfazed, Qutb Shah struck at Vinukonda and seized the fort. Sriranga I, along with Chennappa and Kasturiranga , rushed to Vinukonda and after a fierce battle the Sultan’s army was defeated and sent back. Later, Sriranga I’s troops, under Chennappa, stormed the fort of Kondavidu while the later died fighting even as he forced the Sultans army to retreat.

Despite the loss of territories, which was higher this time, Sriranga I also had a difficult time with his uncooperative brothers and noble men and continued to resist with limited resources as the Nayaks of Madurai and Gingee evaded on paying annual tributes.

Sriranga I died in 1586, without an heir and was succeeded by his youngest brother Venkatapathi Raya (Venkata II).

*Venkata II/Venkatapati Deva Raya(1586-1614 CE) the younger brother of Srirangal became the King of Vijayanagara Empire from 1586-1614.His reign of three decades saw a revival of strength and prosperity of the empire. He dealt successfully with the Deccan sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda, the internal disorders, promoting economic revival in the country. He brought rebelling Nayaks of Tamil Nadu and parts of present day Andhra Pradesh under control.

*Sriranga II/Sriranga Chika Raya (1614-1614 CE) was nominated in 1614 by King Venkata II to succeed him as king of the Vijayanagara Empire in Southern India. Sriranga was supported by a faction headed by Yachamanedu of Recherla Velama dynasty , one of the Venkata II's loyal viceroys and commanders, but was not favored by a set of nobles headed by Gobburi Jagga Raya, brother (or father) of Venkata II’s queen.

*Ramadeva/ Vira Rama Deva Raya (1617-1632 CE)
ascended the throne after a gruesome war in 1617 as the King of Vijayanagara Empire. In 1614 his father,Sriranga II the preceding King and his family were gruesomely murdered by rival factions headed by Jagga Raya, who was one of their kins. Rama Deva himself was smuggled out of the prison by Yachamanedu, a faithful commander and the viceroy of earlier king Venkata II.

*Venkata III/Peda Venkata Raya (1632-1642 CE), the grandson of Aliya Rama Raya became the King of Vijayanagara Empire.

*Sriranga III (1642-1646 CE) or Sriranga Raya II (1642 – 1652 CE)?? was the last ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire, who came to power in 1642 following the death of his uncle Venkata III. He was also a great grandson of Aliya Rama Raya.

Bas relief of Vijaynagar lion


  1. what are the sources and the reliability of this information?

  2. @ Pink- I have written this article by research through various resources.

  3. The TULUVA dynasty as was said in AMUKTAMALYADA by Srikrishnadevaraya himself was Chandravamsa kshatriya.How can you say it was anagavamsa kshatriya of Bunt community ?.What are the sources you have to say so?.

    1. Thats Right..I have also Find that Error.
      Krishna Deva Raya is Chandra Vamsa Kshatriya

      Source: The Book Amukthya Malyada Written By Sri Krishna Deva Raya...In that book preface he mentioned as Yadu Vamsi that means Chandra Vamsi(Yadav)

      Link :

      Out of the four clans that ruled the Vijayanagara empire, two clans Saluva Dynasty and Aravidu Dynasty claimed to be of the Kshatriya Varna. [65] Raja Achutya Deva Raya was extensively interviewed by Robert Sewell in order to help him in research for his book,[66] and is acknowledged by the Government of Karnataka as the direct descendant of this line. In his royal biography he takes on the title of Zamindar of Anegundi, Senior Representative of the Royal House of Vijayanagar, born 4 August 1936, adoptive son of Rani Lal Kumari, Guru (Religious Head) of the Hindu Kshatriya Community, enjoys the customary privileges and honors at Hampi Temple and at Anegondi Temple, during all religious functions as well as Muslim festivals.[67]His family states they are of the Kshatriya Raju caste and marry among Telugu speaking Kshatriya Rajus settled in this area.
      Raju families such as the Chodarajus, Nandyalas, Madirajus, Tirumalarajus, Gobburis, Saluvas (Bommarajus) of Karvetinagar, the Rajas of Owk and Matla Chiefs were all at one time or other, relatives of the Aravidu dynasty. All of these families still live in and around the Hampi area.
      • The founding brothers of the Aravidu dynasty were the son-in-laws of Krishna Deva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasty and were also related previously through marriage with the Saluva Dynasty. Gobburi Narasaraju was the nephew of Aliya Ramaraju and[68] Emperor Venkatapthi Raju was married to Gobburi Kondama,[69]the sister of the Raja of Srisailam, Gobburi Giriappa.[70] After the death of Venkatapathi Raju, from 1614-1616 there was a great war of succession. Amongst the claimants to the throne was Gobburi Jaga Deva Raju, the brother-in-law of the emperor and also a relative of the Raja of Karvetinagar, Saluva Makaraju.[71][72] The Matla Chiefs fought against the Gobburis.[73]
      • The Matli-Matla chiefs were Ellamrajus who gained the territory after defeating the Tirupatirajus in battle in 1604 AD.[74]
      • The Chodaraju's gotra was given as Kasyapa and the Nandyala's gotra was given as atreya and were described as belonging to Chandravanshi, both were related through marriage and both were appointed Mahamandaleswars during the start of the 16th century.[75][76][77][78]
      • The Madiraju's gotra was given as Kasyapa and Suryavanshi and related to the Thirumalarajus, both appointed Mahamandeleswars of Guntur area and happened to be the grandchildren of Aravidu Rama Raya.[79][80][81]
      • Madhava Varma Bejawada was mentioned in 1509 AD. as of the Vasishtha gotra and Suryavansi.[82]
      • Krishna Deva Raya defeated among others Rachi Raju Pusapati, Srinatha Raju and Lakshmipati Raju on his way to defeating Pratapa Rudra Gajapati Raju of the Gajapathi Dynasty. He immediately reinstated these rulers as his vassals and married the daughter of Pratapa Rudra as a truce offering. All this occurred between 1514-1517 AD.[83][84]
      • Ganapathirajus were described as of the Suryavanshi and Kasyapa gotra and were Mahamandaleswars in 1555 AD.[85]
      • Karvetinagar
      The current Bommaraju family of Karvetinagar are of Kshatriya Raju caste and trace their origins back to an ancestor who migrated from the Pithapuram area of the Godavari Deltaabout the 8th or 9th century. One ancestor obtained the favor of the Eastern Chalukya King, Vimala Aditya and Saluva Narasa was appointed the Chief of the region around Tirupati, where he founded a town called Narasapuram. The founder of the family Narasa was granted permission by his patron, the Chalukyas, to use the royal seal and boar-signet of the Chalukyas, a proud distinction still kept up. The family became feudatories of Vijayanagar, and had marriage alliances with the Saluva and loyalties to the Aravidu dynasties over the next two hundred years. Around the 16th century the family changed their name to the current Bommaraju, retaining Saluva as a title.[86]

  4. @NGUGIE...thank you for your suggestion and comment. This article is my research through various sources. I will check again and do the possible changes as per your information. Thanks again!!

    1. One correction Brother
      I have found one Error.
      Krishna Deva Raya is Chandra Vamsa Kshatriya

      Source: The Book Amukthya Malyada Written By Sri Krishna Deva Raya...In that book preface he mentioned as Yadu Vamsi that means Chandra Vamsi(Yadav)

      please make chage

  5. charitreya adhara sthambhavagiro vicharadhare

  6. It would be great if appropriate references are provided to support your statements so that the article looks scientific and the credibility is not questioned.

    1. May I know your identity first Mr/Ms 123???

  7. It brings back memories of reading history of Karnataka through different stages of middle and high school. I do remember quite a few of the names (of Kings) but not all the time periods.

    A wonderful article, overall. There are some details such as saint VidyaraNya being the Acharya of Sringeri - but we definitely know that Vyasaraya who gave Deekshe to Purandara dasa was during the period of Krishnadeva Raya. Purandara in one song has a dialog with this king. When the King asks him, "You used to be so rich that you would give me loans, now that you have become a mendicant, whose benevolence is great, yours or mine". Purandara replies in his song "Nimma bhagya doDDado, namma bhAgya doDDado, sammithiyinda naavu neevu saaTi mADi nODuva banni. It concludes "nimma bhAgya Laksmi Devi, namma Bhagya naarayaNa". Purandara's time period and contribution can be another angle to look at the great Vijayanagara Empire.
    Also, the governments of AP and Karnataka at one point wanted to bring a common script to the two languages "Kannada and Telugu". The scriptographers of both states concluded that Vijaya Lipi (used during that period) could provide the common basis in terms of script (although languages would remain different). This was accepted by both governments but not implemented since the chief ministers on both sides changed.

    1. Thanks a lot Mr Raghu for your info and comment..

  8. where is the Vijayanagar kingdom's palace at now.

    1. ya,am also thinking about it.

    2. may be my forefathers told to my dad now I know that it is 8 to 12 kilometres from humpi at anegundi

  9. is there any descendant of vijaynagara empire alive. who is he /she.please answer.this article is really awesome. thanks

    1. The Tuluva Dynasty Bunts(Shetty's,Rai,Nayak) and other Tulu Speaking people reside in the Costal Karnataka City of Mangalore(where thay are the mojority population. Although majority of them migrated to place like Mumbai

    2. The Tuluva Dynasty Bunts(Shetty's,Rai,Nayak) and other Tulu Speaking people reside in the Costal Karnataka City of Mangalore(where thay are the mojority population. Although majority of them migrated to place like Mumbai

  10. Religious Cults in Vijayanagara Empire: A Many Splendoured Phenomena-

  11. hi did bahamani sultan lose to sri krishnadevaraya?

    1. The Bahamani's lost to the Gajapati kings
      By the time Krishna Deva Raya came to power, the Bahamani's split to small kingdoms like Bijapur

    2. No though bahmani kingdom split up deccan sultans were nominally under their control.
      In the battle of kovilkonda Sri krishnadevaraya inflicted a crushing defeat on both bahmani sultan and bijapur sultan yusuf adilshah and killed him.

  12. This comment has been removed by the author.

  13. Where is VIJAYANAGARA kingdom's PALACE at present which can make a rapid changes in our INDIAN ECONOMY???if anybody knows any information about it please reply me.

  14. Replies
    1. (st) Hindu beda now they r known as valmikies

  15. Anegondi Royal family ( Araveedu dynasty lineage, who were associated with the Vijayanagar empire ) say that they belong to Telugu Kshatriya ( Raju) caste. Karveti Nagar ( Near Tirupati, Chittoor district,Andhra) Zamindars of Saluva clan also say that they belong to Telugu Kshatriya (Raju) caste.
    Poosapati Rachiraju ( the then king of Andhra Vizianagaram) was co-brother of Krishnadeva Raya, both these kings married Orissa Gajapati king's daughters.
    Hence the historians can also do research with this Raju ( Telugu speaking Kshatriyas) connection to the Vijayangar empire and its rulers.

  16. I will be visit this place once time. thanks

  17. Hi Madhu Nimkar,my self Satish Nayaka, living around Hampi region, I need your help with respect to my sur name nayakara, I personally met elders staying in my region and asked them about the same and they said our ancestors were nayakas under vijayanagara empire. Can you helpe to research more on this. Your help would be greatly appreciated thanks!

  18. Sri Krishna devraya kingdom place name...I will visit one time in my life....

  19. Hello in under sri Krishna devraya kingdom town name...very small town but history is so good ......but plz...impriu the my sweet city MUDGAL....

  20. Superb! It helped me in my history project

  21. Please share a power point presentation on this topic

  22. Please share a power point presentation on this topic

  23. I visited recently Hampi and Virupaksha Temples. Purchased some books on Hampi. It looks like Mininister Thimmarasu also got some brothers/cousins like Kamarasu ..Mallikharjuna ruled from 1446 to 1465 .Succeded by his son Rajasekhara in the Sangama Dynasty way as last rulers. Some of them migrated to East coast of present Andhra.Pradesh. Even today some Families are there with Kamarsu as sir name of Vasistha Gothram Mallikhrjunarao and Rajasekhararao as common names in the families in Godavari Districts. These ancestors are originated from Vijayanagar Empire groups.

  24. Can some researcher tell me what did the architecture of hampi destroyed upto what period
    The reason why
    I don't worry the looters took gold and jewelry but understand destruction that we are not able to rebuild now despite technical

  25. Can some researcher tell me what did the architecture of hampi destroyed upto what period
    The reason why
    I don't worry the looters took gold and jewelry but understand destruction that we are not able to rebuild now despite technical

  26. i am looking for nature of state .... debate
    but ..............

  27. i am looking for nature of state .... debate
    but ..............

  28. What came after sriranga3 of aravidu dynasty?

  29. May I use your Vijayanagar picture for a project I'm working on about Bangalore? You can reach me at

  30. page 179

    No 38.

    Nanjangud Taluk

    1. Svasti sri vijayabhyudaya Salivahana saka 5 varusha
    2.1434 sandu ......srimukha samvatsarada Phalguna ba svasti jitam
    3.bhagavata gata ghana gaganabhena sthira simhasanarudha sri nahaajadhiraja ra
    4.ja parameswara sriman mahamedini ,miseyaraganda kathari saluva sriman dekshina samu
    5.dradhipati Narasimha varma maharajadhiraja tut putra pituranvagata YADAVA kulamba
    6.ra dyumani samyuktva chudamini sakala vanahi brind sandoha (santarpana)paranarisahodara
    7.sauchavira(sarvavira) parakramadhara sakala desadhisvara mani makuta charanaravinda kathari
    8.trinetra srimat krishnavarma maharajadhiraja prudhvirajyam geyinottiralu dakshina de
    9.sadhi vijayavagi dittayisida vira Krishnarayara nyupadim srimanu mahapradhanam Ya
    10.ju sakheya khandava gotrada Apastambha sutrada srimanu Saluva Timmarasaru dakshina
    11.varanesi Gajaranyakshetra Rajaraja purvada Talakadali sri mahadevadevo
    12. ttama kirti Narayana devarige thayurasthalada kavahaliyolaganegado ........

    Translation -----------

    Be it well.In the victorious and prospering Salivahan era 1434 year s having expired while the year srimukha was current, on the 5th lunar day of the dark half of Phalghuna.Be it well.Victory to the Adorable(padmanabha)who resembles the sky free from clouds.While illustrious Krishnavarma maharajadhiraja seated on the stable throne, the prosperous king of kings, lord of kings, champion over those who wear mustaches in the great earth, kathari saluva(dagger and kite ) , eruler over the southern sea,Narasimha mahadhiraja's son ; asun to the fragment that is the Yadava race of which he is a lineal descendant: :..............................Under the orders of vira Krishnaraya, whole he was pleased to go on a victorious expedition to the to the south:the illustrious mahapradhana(chief minister) Saluva Timmarasa of yaju sakha khandava gotra and apastambha sutra made agift to the best of the gods kirtinarayana devaru of Talakadu which is Rajarajpuram...............

    Note ----

    -It belongs to the reign of Vijayanara king Krishnaraya and is dated S.1434srimuka This data correspond to March 15, A.D. 1514; .........The pecular feature in the historical portion of this record the king Krishnaraya is here styled krishnavarma maharajadhiraj as is also the case in two other inscriptions of th same Talu.(E.C.-III Nanjanguda 190 and 195 of 1512 and 1513 A.D)............

    Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department for the 1930
    University of Mysore ,

  31. Mam shall I translate this in Kannada and share it on social medias n some weekly magazines? I wont remove ur name

  32. Mam shall I translate this in Kannada and share it on social medias n some weekly magazines? I wont remove ur name

  33. Who are the 16 Patrudus belongs to Gajapathis soldiers battled with Krishnadevaraya Military......please give me the detailed history of Patrudu warriors

  34. Who are the 16 Patrudus belongs to Gajapathis soldiers battled with Krishnadevaraya Military......please give me the detailed history of Patrudu warriors

    1. i have not received any positive history on my above publication.

  35. The 16 warriors belongs to named as PAATHRUDU were the Danda Nayaks of Gajapathy Dynasty had participated in war with Sri Krishna Devaraya at present Vijayawada near Krishna river may pleased to request the entire history with references of old manuscripts as available in e-books or libraries and the images of 16 PAATHRUDUs may post on my gmail address.

  36. The 16 warriors belongs to named as PAATHRUDU were the Danda Nayaks of Gajapathy Dynasty had participated in war with Sri Krishna Devaraya at present Vijayawada near Krishna river may pleased to request the entire history with references of old manuscripts as available in e-books or libraries and the images of 16 PAATHRUDUs may post on my gmail address.

  37. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  39. Mam shall I translate this in Malayalam

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  44. I like to know the victories path of the vijayanagara empire devararaya against gajapatis of orissa PRATAP rudra gajapati

    Vijayanagar empire(devara raya) vs vizianagaram empire (vizaya ram raz)

    Gajapatis of Orissa differ from pusapati Ashok gajapati raz ( they got title from Orissa gajapati s after winning war padmanabha war against them)

    Did devaraya went via Vijayawada Bezawada conquering & gaining Kondapali- kondaveedu forts of andhra

    The title of pathrudus is seen in two communities nagaralu / Nagaram community / nagaratar / nagartha ( due to language speaking both Telugu & Oriya) and in community ayyarakulu ( chintakayala ayyanna Patrudu ( vizag minister of AP, TDP leader)

    Nagaralu & Ayyarakulu share title patrudus

    It would be help to me to publish a historical book upon pathruds
    Hemanth Kumar koraganji advocate

  45. Excellent Post! Rejoice life during holidays through Dandeli Resorts; located in Uttara Kannada, Karnataka state.