Sunday, September 6, 2009

Chalukya Dynasties

File:Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal.jpg
The Virupaksha temple (originally called Lokesvara temple) at Pattadakal in Karnataka, was built by queen Lokamahadevi (queen of Badami Chalukya King Vikramaditya II) around 740 CE.

Intro Chalukya Dynasties:
The Chalukya Dynasty was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. During this period, they ruled as three related, but individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from their capital Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi II (609 – 642) C.E. After the death of Pulakesi II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from their capital Vengi until about the 11th century.In the 6th century, the Gupta dynasty declined. They were having immediate descendants in northern India. Many changes were undertaken in the southern area of the Vindyas- the Deccan and Tamilaham. The age of small kingdoms had given way to large empires in this region. In 550 Pulakesi I established the Chalukya dynasty. He took Vatapi (Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan) till the end of the 12th century.

The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas. For the first time, a South Indian kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture". Kannada literature, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas in the Jain and Veerashaiva traditions. The 11th century saw the birth of Telugu literature under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukyas.

Badami Chalukya empire

Badami Chalukya Dynasty:
Pulakesi I and his descendants, are referred to as Chalukyas of Badami who ruled over an empire that comprised the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh in the Deccan. Pulakesi II whose precoronation name was Ereya was perhaps the greatest emperor of the Badami Chalukyas. Immadi Pulakesi (Immadi in old Kannada means "II") is considered as one of the great kings in Indian history. His queen Kadamba Devi was a princess from the dynasty of Alupas. They maintained close family and marital relationship with the Alupas of South Canara and the Gangas of Talakad. Pulakesi II extended the Chalukya Empire up to the northern extents of the Pallava kingdom and halted the southward march of Harsha by defeating him on the banks of the river Narmada. He then defeated the Vishnukundins in the southeastern Deccan. Pallava Narasimhavarman however reversed this victory by attacking and occupying the Chalukya capital Vatapi (Badami).

The Badami Chalukya dynasty went in to a brief decline following the death of Pulakesi II due to internal feuds. It recovered during the reign of Vikramaditya I, who succeeded in pushing the Pallavas out of Badami and restoring order to the empire. The empire reached a peak during the rule of the illustrious Vikramaditya II who defeated the Pallava Nandivarman II and captured Kanchipuram.

After the rise of the Rashtrakutas the Chalukyas of Badami went in to an eclipse to be recovered in the tenth century C.E. by Tailapa II (973 – 997) C.E. These later Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani. They were in constant conflict with the Imperial Cholas over the control of the Eastern Chalukya kingdom of Vengi. The Western Chalukyan power finally succumbed to the Hoysalas and Yadavas after almost three hundred years of glory. Somesvara IV (1184 – 1200 C.E.) was the last known Chalukyan ruler. Some of the most beautiful architecture and literature were developed by Chalukyas. It was a combination of the South Indian and the North Indian building styles.

Kirtivarman I was overthrown by the Rashtrakuta Dantidurga in 753. He was the last Badami Chalukya king. At their peak they ruled a vast empire stretching from the Kaveri to the Narmada.

List of Badami Chalukyas:
*Pulakesi I (543 – 566 C.E.)
Pulakesi I established the Chalukya dynasty in then western Deccan and his descendants ruled over an empire that comprised the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh. Pulakesi overthrew the Kadambas to establish the Chalukya kingdom. He had the titles Satyashraya, Vallabha and Dharmamaharaja.

Pulakesi I was Ranaranga's son. His wife was Durlabhadevi of Bappura family.He earned the distinction of being the first independent King and the real founder of the Chalukya dynasty. He successfully defied the waning power of the Kadambas and proclaimed the Chalukyan independence. He chose Badami (Vatapi) as his capital and constructed a strong hill fortress there. The new fortress stood on the defensible location surrounded by rivers and steep mountains. The Chalukyan kingdom did not extend much beyond the immediate vicinities of Badami.

Pulakesi performed sacrifices like Asvamedha, Hiranyagarbha, Agnistoma, Vajapeya, Bahusuvarna and Paundarika. These details are provided by his Badami Cliff inscription dated Saka 565 (543 CE).Inscriptions compares him with such mythical heroes as Yayati and Dilipa.

*Kirtivarman I (566 – 597 C.E.)
Kirtivarman I succeeded Pulakesi I as the ruler of the Chalukya Dynasty.
Kirtivarman I consolidated the newly founded Chalukya Kingdom. He completed the subjugation of the Kadambas, and he secured the extension of the Chalukya Kingdom by subduing the Nalas of Nalavadi, the Alupas of South Kanara and the Maurya chiefs of Konkan.
He also annexed the port of Goa, then known as Revatidvipa. The Sendrakas, the feudatories of the Kadambas who ruled in Shimoga district, now shifted their political allegiance to the Chalukyas, and married a princess from this family.

At the demise of Kirtivarman, his son Pulakesi II was too young to rule and Kirtivarman's brother Mangalesa assumed the responsibilities of the crown.

*Mangalesa (597 – 609 C.E.)
Mangalesa was an energetic and ambitious ruler succeeded Kirtivarman I to the Chalukya throne. He ruled as regent as the heir to the throne Pulakesi II was considered too young to rule.
Mangalesa won several laurels in war. Mangalesa continued the policy of expansion. He invaded the territory of the Kalachuri ruler Buddhiraja who ruled over Gujarat, Khandesh and Malwa. From the Mahakuta pillar inscription of 595 it is known that he subdued the Gangas, Pallava, Chola, Alupas and Kadambas rulers.

Mangalesa assumed the titles like Ururanaparakrama, Ranavikrama and Paramabhagavata.
As Mangalesa was ruling as a regent, he should have surrendered the throne to Pulakesi II when the latter came of age. Instead he sought to prolong his reign with the view of handing the throne to his own son Sundaravarma in due course.

This forced Pulakesi to rebel against his uncle. Pulakesi left the court and by his own martial prowess, waged a war on Mangalesa with the help of few of his friends. Mangalesa was routed and killed in the battlefield of Elapattu-Simbige. This incident is mentioned in the Peddavadu-guru inscription, and the incident must have happened about 610.

*Pulakesi II (609 – 642 C.E.)
Pulakesi II is the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty. In his reign the Chalukyas of Badami saw their kingdom extend over most of the Deccan.

Ereya, who assumed the name Pulakesi on his coronation, was born to the Chalukya king Kirtivarman I. When Kirtivarman died in 597, Ereya was still a young boy and Kirtivarman's brother Mangalesa governed the young kingdom as regent until Ereya came of age. Mangalesa was a capable ruler and continued expanding the kingdom. However, when Ereya came of age, desire for power perhaps made Mangalesa deny prince Ereya his rightful place on the Chalukya throne, and he sought to perpetuate his own line by making his son heir apparent.

Ereya took shelter in the Bana territory (Kolar), organised an army with the help of his associates and declared war on his uncle. According to the Peddavadagur inscription Mangalesa was defeated and killed in the ensuing battle at Elapattu Simbige. Ereya ascended the Chalukya throne as Pulakesi II and assumed the title Chalukya Parameshwara. His other assumed titles are Satyashraya, Prithvivallabha. With this conquest, Pulakesi's control extended completely over Southern India, including Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. He received the title Dakshinapatheshvara (Lord of the South) at around the same time (630-634 C.E.).

The Ganga ruler Durvinita gave one of his daughters in marriage to Pulakesi, and she was the mother of Vikramaditya I.

Pulakesi was the first ruler in South India to issue gold coinage. Broad and circular in shape, the punch-marked coins had various punches at the edge, and a central punch depicting a Varaha or Boar. The Boar was the royal emblem of the Chalukyas. Contemporary literature cites the gold coins of south India as Varahas.

It is possible that Pulakesi II lost his life in one of these encounters against the Pallavas.
Pulakesi had five sons, Chandraditya, Adityavarma, Vikramaditya, Jayasimha and Ambera. They fought among themselves after his demise, trying to divide the kingdom into territories for each of themselves. Pulakesi's third son Vikramaditya I became the Chalukya king 642 and attempted to re-unite the kingdom after defeating his brothers.

*Vikramaditya I (655 – 680 C.E.)
Vikramaditya I was the third son and followed his father, Pulakesi II on to the Chalukya throne. He restored order in the fractured kingdom and made the Pallavas retreat from the capital Vatapi.

Vikramaditya, with the help of his maternal grandfather Bhuvikarma of Western Ganga Dynasty set himself the task of repelling the Pallava invasion and restoring the unity of his father's kingdom. He defeated the Pallava Narasimhavarman I to end his occupation, which had lasted for thirteen years and expelled him from Vatapi. He defeated his brothers and other feudatories who wished to divide the empire and then declared himself king of the Chalukyas (655). He rewarded his younger brother Jayasimhavarman who was loyal to him, with the viceroyalty of Lata in the southern Gujarat.

Vikramaditya continued his enimity with Narasimhavarman's son and successor Mahendravarman II, and later with his son Paramesvaravarman I. He allied himself with the Pallava's other enemy the Pandyan Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman (670 – 700).
Vikramaditya I was married to the Western Ganga princess Gangamahadevi. He died in 680.

*Vinayaditya (680 – 696 C.E.)
Vinayaditya succeeded his father, Vikramaditya I on to the Chalukya throne. His reign was marked by general peace and harmony. He earned the titles Yuddhamalla, Sahasarasika, Satyashraya.

He had fought alongside his father against the Pallavas, he defeated the Pallavas, Kalabhras, Keralas and the Kalachuri of central India. From the Kolhapur plates of 678 he defeated the kingdoms of Lanka and Kamera. The Vakkaleri plates confirm the Chalukya levying tribute on Kamera, Lanka and Parasika (Persia). During this time, Persia was under Islamic invasion.
Vinayaditya sent an expedition to the north under the command of his son Vijayaditya. According to some accounts, Vijayaditya was captured and held prisoner and after a period of incarceration, escaped and returned to the Chalukyan kingdom to be crowned the monarch of the empire.

We do not have any further information on this expedition. Vinayaditya sent an ambassador to the Chinese court in 692.

Vijayaditya succeeded his father in 696.

*Vijayaditya (696 – 733 C.E.)
Vijayaditya succeeded his father, Vikramaditya I on to the Chalukya throne. His long reign was marked by general peace and prosperity. Vijayaditya also built a number of temples. He fought against the Pallavas and extracted tributes from Parameshwar Varma V. The Alupas of South Canara who were loyal to the Chalukyas and led by Alupa Chitravahana, brother-in-law of Vijayaditya defeated a Pandyan invasion of Mangalore in 705. He was succeeded by his son Vikramaditya II in 733.

*Vikramaditya II (733 – 746 C.E.)
Vikramaditya II was the son of King Vijayaditya succeeded the Badami Chalukya throne. He had conduced successful military campaigns against their arch enemy, the Pallavas of Kanchipuram. His most important achievements were the capture of Kanchipuram on three occasions, the first time as a crown prince, the second time as an emperor and the third time under the leadership of his son and crown prince Kirtivarman II. Virupaksha Temple inscription alludes to the emperor as the conqueror of Kanchi on three occasions and reads Sri Vikramaditya-bhatarar-mume-Kanchiyan-mume parajisidor. The other notable achievement was the consecration of the famous Virupaksha Temple (Lokeshwara temple) and Mallikarjuna Temple (Trilokeshwara temple) by his queens Lokamahadevi and Trilokadevi at Pattadakal. These two monuments are the centre piece of the UNESCO World Heritage Monuments at Pattadakal.

Kirtivarman II (746 – 753 C.E.)
Kirtivarman II also known as Rahappa succeeded his father Vikramaditya II. His reign was continuously troubled by the growing power of the Rashtrakutas and finally succumbed to them.
Kirtivarman and his Ganga feudatory Sripurusha came into conflict with the Pandya ruler Maravarman Rajasimha I who was extending the Pandya Empire on to the Kongu country which was adjacent to the Ganga kingdom. Rajasimha crossed the Kaveri and engaged Kirtivarman and Sripurusha in a big battle at Venbai on the banks of the river Kaveri. The Chalukya king was defeated.

Kirtivarman II was the last king of the Badami dynasty. There was a period of 220 years in which the western branch of the Chalukyas was in eclipse. Tailapa II revived the dynasty in 973.

Chalukyas of Kalyani/ Western Chalukyas (973 – 1200)
The Chalukyas revived their fortune in 973 C.E. after the period of decline under the Rashtrakutas. Tailapa II, overthrew the Rashtrakuta Krishna III and re-established the Chalukyasn kingdom. He recovered most of the Chalukya Empire. This dynasty came to be known as the Western Chalukya dynasty.

The Western Chalukyas ruled for another 250 years and were in constant conflict with the Cholas and their cousins the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. Satyasraya (997 – 1008 C.E.), Somesvara I (1042 – 1068 C.E.) and Vikramaditya VI (1076 – 1126 CE) were some of the greatest emperors of this dynasty.

*Tailapa II (973 – 997 C.E.)
Tailapa II or Ahavamalla had titles Nurmadi Taliapa and Satyashraya Kulatilaka. He re-established the Western Chalukya dynasty after a period of 220 years during which time they had been in eclipse. The revived Chalukya kingdom rose to its height of power under Vikramaditya VI. The revived dynasty came to be known as the Western Chalukyas or the Kalyani Chalukyas. He patronised Kannada poet Ranna. From the Gadag records, it is known that he ruled for 24 years.

Tailapa defeated the remnants of the Rashtrakuta power by defeating Indra IV and his feudatory in the Godavari basin, Panchaladeva. The Cholas, who were experiencing a minor crisis of succession of their own, were in a position of weakness. Uththama Chola had replaced Parantaka Chola II and Tailapa claimed victory in a battle against Uththama in 980.
Satyasraya, Tailapa's eldest son, who assisted his father in all his campaigns succeeded Tailapa in 997. Satysraya continued the aggressive policies of the Chalukyas.

*Satyasraya (997 – 1008 C.E.)
Satyasraya was also known as Sattiga or Irivabedanga. He was the king of the revived Western Chalukyas.
He identified the growing Chola power as his nemesis and resented their increasing influence in the Vengi region and with the Eastern Chalukyas. During his reign the Paramaras and Chedi reconquered the territory that they had lost to the Chalukyas earlier. But Satyashraya was able to defeat Raja Raja Chola and the crown prince Rajendra Chola when they invaded parts of Karnataka. He also subdued the Shilahara king Aparijitha ruler of North Konkana.
Seeing increased interference of Cholas in Vengi, Satyasraya invaded Vengi in 1006.

*Vikramaditya V (1008 - 1015 C.E.)
Vikaramaditya V succeeded Satyasraya on the Western Chalukya throne. Vikramaditya was Satyasraya's nephew and had a very uneventful short reign.
Vikramaditya was followed on the throne by his brother Jayasimha II in 1015.

*Jayasimha II (1015 – 1042 C.E.)
Jayasimha II was also known as Jagadekhamalla and Mallikamoda. He succeeded his brother Vikramaditya V on the Western Chalukya throne. Jayasimha had to fight on many fronts to protect his kingdom. He patronised Vachanakara and Veerashaiva saint Devara Dasimayya, Kannada scholars Durgasimha who was also his foreign minister, Chavundaraya II and Sanskrit poet Vadiraja.

*Somesvara I (1042 – 1068 C.E.)
Somesvara I was also known as Ahavamalla or Trilokamalla. He succeeded his father Jayasimha II as the Western Chalukya king. He was one of the greatest kings of the later Chalukya Dynasty. He founded the city of Kalyani, present day Basavakalyana and moved his kingdom to that location. He had great faith in himself and managed to impart that to his many generals and feudatories. One of his queens was Hoysala Devi, a Hoysala princess.

*Somesvara II (1068 – 1076 C.E.)
Somesvara II who was administering the area around Gadag succeeded his father Somesvara I (Ahavamalla) as the Western Chalukya king. He was the eldest son of Somesvara I. During his reign Somesvara II was constantly under threat from his more ambitious younger brother Vikramaditya VI. Eventually Somesvara was deposed by Vikramaditya VI.

*Vikramaditya VI (1076 – 1126 C.E.)
Vikramaditya's reign is marked by the start of the Chalukya-Vikrama era. He was the greatest of the Western Chalukya kings and had the longest reign in the dynasty. He earned the title Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla (lord of three worlds). Vikramadtiya VI is noted for his patronage of art and letters. More inscriptions in Kannada are attributed to Vikramaditya VI than any other king prior to the twelfth century. Noted Sanskrit poet Bilhana wrote a eulogy of the King in his Vikramankadevacharita and Vijnaneshvara wrote Mitakshara on Hindu family law. At his peak, the Vikarmaditya VI controlled a vast empire stretching from the Kaveri river in southern India to the Narmada river in central India.

*Somesvara III (1126 – 1138 C.E.)
Somesvara III was a Western Chalukya king and son of Vikramaditya VI and Queen Chandaladevi. Someshvara III had to face the invasion of the Hoysala Vishnuvardhana but was able to suppress him. He lost some territory as the Vengi Chalukyas tried to gain freedom, but was able to maintain most of the vast empire left behind by his famous father. He was a scholar of merit and wrote the Sanskrit classic Manasollasa. He held titles like Tribhuvannamalla, Bhulokamalla and Sarvanjyabhupa.

*Jagadhekamalla II (1138 – 1151 C.E.)
Jagadhekamalla II followed Somesvara III to the Western Chalukya throne. His rule saw the slow decline of the Chalukya Empire with the loss of Vengi entirely, though he was still able to control the Hoysalas in the south and the Seuna and Paramara in the north Jagadhekamalla II himself was a merited scholar and wrote in Sanskrit Sangithachudamani a work on music.

*Tailapa III (1151 – 1164 C.E.)
Tailapa III succeeded Jagadhekamalla II to the Western Chalukya throne. His rule saw the beginning of the end of the Chalukya Empire. Kakatiya dynasty Prolla II warred with him defeated and took the Chalukya king captive. This resulted in other feudatories rising against the Chalukyas. The Seuna and the Hoysala started to take away territory. Kalachuri Bijjala II captured the regal capital Kalyani in 1157 when Tailapa III had to flee to Annigeri (Dharwad district). Finally Tailapa III was killed by Hoysala ViraNarasimha in 1162.

*Jagadhekamalla III (1163 – 1183 C.E.)
Jagadhekamalla III succeeded Tailapa III to the highly diminished Western Chalukya Empire. His rule was completely overshowded by the emergence of the Southern Kalachuri under Bijjala II who took control of Basavakalyana and ruled from there.

*Somesvara IV (1184 – 1200 C.E.)
Somesvara IV was the last king of the Western Chalukya Empire. He made a brief attempt to revive the Chalukya kingdom by defeating the waning Kalachuri kingdom. He managed to capture Basavakalyana but failed to prevent the other feudatories, the Seuna, Hoysala and the Kakatiya dynasty from completely overwhelming the Chalukya empire. In the end, the three feudatories divided the vast area between the Kaveri River and Narmada River amongst themselves.

The Western Chalukyas went into their final dissolution c. 1180 C.E. with the rise of the Hoysalas, Kakatiya and Yadavas.

Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 C.E. when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola Empire. The Vengi kingdom was continued to be ruled by Eastern Chalukyan kings under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C.E., when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. They had their capital originally at Vengi near Nidadavole of the West Godavari district end later changed to Rajamahendravaram (Rajamundry).

Eastern Chalukyas were closely related to the Chalukyas of Vatapi (Badami). Throughout their history they were the cause of many wars between the more powerful Cholas and Western Chalukyas over the control of the strategic Vengi country.

Eastern Deccan was conquered by Pulakesin II (608 – 644 C.E). It was corresponding to the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh c. 616 C.E. Pulakesin II defeated the small part of the Vishnukundina kingdom and appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as Viceroy. On the death of Pulakesin II, the Vengi Viceroyalty developed into an independent kingdom. Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi outlived the main Vatapi dynasty by many generations. Till around the middle of 9th century, they continued to encourage Kannada language in the Vengi region. Thereafter, inscriptions show a gradual shift towards Telugu with the appearance of Telugu stanzas written in old Kannada script.

*Kubja Vishnuvardhana (624 – 641 C.E.)
Kubja Vishnuvardhana was the brother of Chalukya Pulakesi II. He ruled the Vengi territories in the eastern Andhra Pradesh as the viceroy under Pulakesi II from around 615 CE. Eventually Vishnuvardhana declared his independence and started the Eastern Chalukya dynasty (c. 624 CE).

The Eastern Chalukyas ruled the Vengi kingdom for nearly five centuries and had very close relationship with the imperial Cholas.

*Jayasimha I (641 – 673 C.E.)
Jayasimha II succeeded Vishnuvardhana as the king of Eastern Chalukyas. He had a long reign of 32 years, however we know of nothing important happening in his reign.

His younger brother Indra Bhattaraka succeeded him.

*Indra Bhattaraka (673 C.E.)
Indra Bhattaraka succeeded his brother Jayasimha I as the king of Eastern Chalukyas. He had a very short reign of a week.

His son Vishnuvardhana II succeeded him.

*Vishnuvardhana II (673 – 682 C.E.)
Vishnuvardhana II became the Eastern Chalukya king following the very short rule of his father Indra Bhattaraka.

His son Mangi Yuvaraja succeeded him.

*Mangi Yuvaraja (682 – 706) C.E.)
Mangi Yuvaraja followed a period of unrest characterised by family feuds and weak rulers. In the meanwhile, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed ousted Chalukyas of Badami. The weak rulers of Vengi had to meet the challenge of the Rashtrakutas, who overran their kingdom more than once.

*Jayasimha II (706) – 718 C.E.)

*Vishnuvardhana III (719 – 55 C.E.)

*Vijayaditya I (755 – 772 C.E.)
Gandaraditya I was succeeded by his son Vijayaditya I. The Satara plates of his son claim that son Vijayaditya I reinstated the fallen lords of Sthanaka and Goa. Vijayaditya I had to fight hard to wrest independence from Bijjala, the new sovereign but it was only after the death of Bijjala that Vijayaditya I could assume full sovereignty.

*Vishnuvardhana IV (772 – 808 C.E.)

*Vijayaditya II (808 – 847 C.E.)

*Vishnuvardhana V (847– 849 C.E.)

*Vijayaditya III (848 – 892 C.E.)

*Bhima I (892 – 921 C.E.)
King Bhima I built a temple in honour of Siva at Draksharama.

*Vijayaditta IV (921 C.E.)

*Amma I (921 – 927 C.E.)
King AMMA I was also known as VIJAYADITYA V. He compelled to take refuge in the fort of Pithapuram, where he founded a dynasty.

*Vikramaditya II (927 – 928 C.E.)

*Yuddamalla II (928 – 935 C.E.)

*Chalukya Bhima II (935 – 947 C.E.)

*Amma II (947 – 970 C.E.)

*Danamava (970 – 973 C.E.)

*Jata Choda Bhima (973 - 1000 C.E.)

*Saktivarman I (1000 - 1011 C.E.)

*Vimaladitya (1011 – 1018 C.E.)
Vimaladitya fled from the Kingdom and took refuge in the court of the Chola King Rajaraja I (985/1016), Rajaraja invaded Vengi on behalf of the sons of Danarnava. In this war, Jata Choda Bhima was killed and Vengi passed into the hands of Rajaraja. This was not liked by Satyasraya, an early ruler of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani. As a result of this, Vengi became the bone of contention between the Cholas and Chalukyas of Kalyani to the west, married Rani Kundavai, daughter of King Rajaraja I Chola.

*Rajaraja Narendra (1018 – 1061 C.E.)
Rajaraja Narendra was the Eastern Chalukya king of the Vengi kingdom in South India. Rajaraja was closely related to the Cholas of Tanjavur by marital and political links.

*Saktivarman II (1061-1063)

*Vijayaditya VII (1063 – 1068 C.E. , 1072 – 1075 C.E.)
Vijayaditya VII was the last king of the eastern Chalukya dynasty, witnessed an invasion of the Vengi kingdom by the Chedi King of Dahala, Yasahkarnadeva in 1073. Vijayaditya VII lost his kingdom and with his death in 1075 the eastern Chalukya dynasty came to an end.

Army of Chalukyas:
The army comprised of infantry, cavalry, elephant unit and a dominant navy. It is referred by Hiuen-Tsiang, a Chinese traveler that the Chalukya army consisted of hundreds of elephants, which were inebriated with liquor prior to battle. Rashtrakuta inscriptions use the idiom Karnatabala referring to their commanding armies. Taxes were levied and called Herjunka, Kirukula, Bilkode and Pannaya.

Land Governed:
The empire was alienated into Maharashtrakas (provinces), then into minor Rashtrakas (Mandala), Vishaya (district), Bhoga (group of 10 villages), analogous to the Dasagrama unit used by the Kadambas. At the subordinate levels of organization, the Kadamba style entirely reigned. The Sanjan plates of Vikramaditya I have mentioned a land unit termed Dasagrama. There were many regions ruled by feudatories like Alupas, Gangas, Banas, Sendrakas etc. Local assemblies worked on the local issues. Groups of mahajanas (learned brahmins) looked after agraharas (like Ghatika or place of higher learning) like the ones at Badami (2000 mahajans) and Aihole (500 mahajanas).

The Badami Chalukyas imprinted coins were included Nagari and Kannada legends. They minted coins with cryptograms of temples, lion or boar facing right and the lotus. The coins were called honnu in old Kannada and had fractions such as fana and the quarter fana, whose contemporary equivalent being hana (literally means money). It weighed 4 grams. A gold coin called Gadyana is mentioned in some record in Pattadakal that later came to be known a varaha which was also witnessed on their emblem.

The rule of the Badami Chalukya was a period of religious development. Initially they followed Vedic Hindusim, as observed in the diverse shrines devoted to countless popular Hindu deities. Pattadakal is the location of their grandest architecture. The worship of Lajja Gauri, the fertility goddess was equally popular. They enthusiastically encouraged Jainsm and confirmed to by one of the Badami cave temples and other Jain temples in the Aihole complex. Aihole and Kurtukoti, Puligere (Laksmeshwara in Gadag district) were primary places of learning.

Art and Architecture:
The primarily long-term inheritance of the Chalukya dynasty is the architecture and art they left behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the Badami Chalukya, and built between 450 and 700; remain in the Malaprabha basin in Karnataka.

The rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Badami and Aihole are their most celebrated monuments. Two of the famous paintings at Ajanta cave no. 1, "The Temptation of the Buddha" and "The Persian Embassy" is attributed to them. This is the commencement of Chalukya style of architecture and a consolidation of South Indian style.
In Aihole, the Durga temple (6th century), Ladh Khan temple (450), Meguti temple (634), Hucchimalli and Huccappayya temples (5th century), Badami Cave Temples (600) are examples of early Chalukyan art. The splendid temples at Pattadakal were commissioned by Vikramaditya II (740). Here the Virupakshaand Mallikarjuna (740), Sangameswara (725) and a Jain temple are in the Dravidian style while Jambulinga, Kasivisweswara and Galaganatha (740) are in the Northern nagara style. The Papanatha (680) temple shows an attempt to combine the Northern and Southern styles.

Certain art reviewers say that the Badami Chalukya style is a "prayaga" or meeting of formal trends of architecture, the dravida and nagara.

Vishnu image inside cave temple No.3


  1. Nice posting. Do you know about these Sanskrit books?

  2. Madhu Nimkar,
    Can i get your contact details.

  3. Nice collection... Thank you.