Friday, September 18, 2009

Kingdom of Kadambas

File:Hangal Tarakeshwara pillars.jpg
Hangal Tarakeshwara Temple

Introduction:
The Kadamba Dynasty (345 - 525 CE) was a primeval majestic dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Vaijayanti or Banavasi in present day Uttara Kannada district. The decline of the Satavahana power in the Deccan was followed by the rule of many lesser dynasties like the Chutus, the Abhiras and the Ikshvakus during the third century A.D. the Karnataka area, however emerged out of this political confusion in the following century, when the Kadambas of Banavasi rose to prominence. The dynasty later continued to rule as a feudatory of larger Kannada empires, the Chalukya and the Rashtrakuta empires for over five hundred years, during which time they branched into Goa, Hanagal, and Chandavar. Mauryas, Satavahanas and Chutus were the pre Kadamba rulers where the ruling families were not natives of the region. Kadamba dynasty is important because it was the first indigenous dynasty to use Kannada at an administrative level. Kadambas kept paying nominal allegiance to other major power brokers of Deccan like Yadavas and Hoysalas of Dorasamudra and thus mantained their independence. Four different families of Kadambas ruled in southern India which was Kadamabas of Hangal, Kadambas of Goa, Kadambas of Belur and Kadambas of Banvasi.

Kadamba dynasty was founded by Mayurasharma in 345 AD. Their ancestors were said to have migrated from the foothills of the Himalayas. Kakusthavarma the successor of this dynasty was a powerful ruler. Gupta dynasty of northern India cultivated marital relationship with the family for their fair indication of the sovereign nature of this kingdom. Due to tiring endless battle and bloodshed, king Shivakoti, a descendent from this dynasty adopted Jainism. The Kadamba kings called themselves Dharmamaharajas and an absolute autonomy was formed by the Kadambas.
Kangavarma the successor of Mayurasharma was defeated by Vakataka Prithvisena who had to fight the Vakataka might to protect Kuntala. But he managed to maintain his freedom. His son Bhagiratha is said to have retrieved his father’s losses. His son Raghu who died fighting the Pallavas was succeeded by his brother Kakusthavarma who was the most ferocious and powerful ruler of the kingdom. He maintained marital relations with even the imperial Guptas of the north, according to the Talagunda inscription. One of his daughters was married to Kumara Gupta's son Skanda Gupta. His other daughter was married to a Vakataka king Narendrasena. He maintained similar relations with the Bhatari, the Alupas of South Canara and the Western Ganga Dynasty of Gangavadi according to the Talagunda inscription. The great poet Kalidasa had visited his court.

After Kakusthavarma only Ravivarma who came to the throne in 485 was able to build upon the kingdom. His rule was marked by a series of clashes within the family, and also against the Pallavas and the Gangas. He is also credited with a victory against the Vakatakas, which extended his Kingdom as far north as the river Narmada. The crux of their kingdom essentially consisted of most of Karnataka, Goa and southern areas of present day Maharashtra. After his death, the kingdom went into decline due to family feuds.

The Birur plates of Kadamba Vishnuvarman call Shantivarman "The master of the entire Karnataka region".

The Triparvatha branch that broke away in 455 ruled from Murod in Belgaum for some time and merged with the main Banavasi kingdom during rule of Harivarma. Finally the kingdom fell to the prowess of the Badami Chalukyas. The Kadambas thereafter became feudatories of the Badami Chalukyas and later the Rashtrakutas and Kalyani Chalukyas. The successors of Mayurasharma took to the name "varma" to indicate their Kshatriya status.

Prakrit had the status of an official language under the early Kadamba rulers. But by the time of Kakusthavarma, Sanskrit came to be increasingly adopted. Kannada too was assuming greater importance by the 5th century A.D. as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription.

Origin of Kadambas:
There are two theories to the origin of the Kadamba dynasty, a native Kannadiga origin and the other a north Indian origin. North Indian Origin of Kadambas was found only in the later records of their offshoot descendent dynasty and is considered legendary. Family name is derived from the Kadamba tree is commonly known about this Dynasty in South India region.

The historians claim that this kingdom was belong to Brahmin caste through Talagunda inscription or were of tribal of origin called Kadambu. The Kadambas promptly gave administrative and political importance to their language, Kannada, after coming to power. It is claimed that the family of the Kadambas were undoubtedly of Kanarese descent. The Naga descent of the Kadambas has been stated in early inscriptions of King Krishna Varma I too, which confirms the family was from Karnataka.

Gold coin with symbol of Lion at one side and die-striking to the other side

Coins:
The Talagunda, Gundanur, Chandravalli, Halasi and Halmidi’s Sanskrit and Kannada inscription are some of the important inscriptions that throw light on Kadamba dynasty. They minted coins a large number of interesting coins with Nagari, Kannada and Grantha legends. The majority of these are of gold coins and some copper coins. Most of the coins were produced by the punching method. Each alphabet or symbol on the coins has been punched with a different punch. The main device or design is punched at the centre of the coin. Often, this is punched so deeply that the coin assumes the shape of a concave saucer or cup.

The Kadamba coins are generally known as padmatankas (lotus coins) as the central symbol on the obverse of most of them is the lotus (padmtt). The obverse of some Kadamba coins features the lion instead of the lotus.

Inscriptions:
The Talagunda inscription narrates in detail about how Mayurasarma proceeded to Kanchi, along with his guru, Virasarma to prosecute his Vedic studies at a Ghatika. There a quarrel arose between him and Pallava guard due to some misunderstanding, in which Mayurasarma was humiliated. In high rage, the Brahmana discontinued his studies, left Kanchi, swearing vengeance on the impudent Pallavas, and had recourse to arms. It was an open rebel against the Pallava authority and arrogance. Mayurasarma collected an army and routed the Pallava officers guarding the frontier and occupied the area of Sriparvata (Srisailam). He then subdued the Brihad-Bana and other kings and collected tributes from them. Unable to tame the power of Mayura, the Pallava rulers thought it wise to compromise with him and acknowledged his sway over the territory from the Western Ocean to Prehara. It also states that Mayurasharma was a native of Talagunda, (in present day Shimoga district) and his family got its name from the Kadamba tree that grew near his home.

Halmidi inscription of 450 is an evidence that Kadambas were the first rulers to use Kannada as an additional official administrative language. Three Kannada inscriptions from their early rule from Banavasi have been discovered, also several early Kadamba dynasty coins bearing the Kannada inscription Vira and Skandha was found in Satara collectorate. A gold coin of King Bhagiratha (390-415 CE) bearing the old Kannada legend Sri and Bhagi also exists. Recent discovery of 5th century Kadamba copper coin in Banavasi with Kannada script inscription Srimanaragi on it proves the usage of Kannada at the administrative level further.

The recently discovered Gudnapur inscription states that Mauryasharma's grandfather and preceptor was Virasarma and his father Bandhushena developed the character of a Kshatriya.

Administration of kingdom:
Dr. Mores has identified various cabinet and other positions in the kingdom from inscriptions. The prime minister (Pradhana), Steward (Manevergade), secretary of council (Tantrapala or Sabhakarya Sachiva), scholarly elders (Vidyavriddhas), physician (Deshamatya), private secretary (Rahasyadhikritha), chief secretary (Sarvakaryakarta), chief justice (Dharmadhyaksha) and other officials (Bhojaka and Ayukta).

The army consisted of officers like Jagadala, Dandanayaka and Senapathi.

The kingdom was divided into Mandalas (provinces) or Desha. Under a Mandala was Vishayas (districts). A total of nine Vishaya have been identified. Under a Vishaya were Mahagramas (Taluk) and Dashagramas (Hobli). Mahagrama had more villages than Dashagramas. Total one sixth of land produce was collected as tax. Taxes were collected as Perjunka (levy on load), Vaddaravula (social security tax for royal family), Bilkoda (salex tax), Kirukula (land tax), Pannaya (betel tax) and other professional taxes on traders etc.

Religion:
The Kadamba dynasty was followers of Vedic Hinduism. The founder of the kadamba kingdom, Mayurasharma was a Brahmin by birth but later his successors changed their surname to Varma to indicate their Kshatriya status. Some Kadamba kings like Krishna Varma performed the horse sacrifice (Ashwamedha).

Inscription of Talagunda starts with an invocation of Lord Shiva, while the Halmidi and Banavasi inscriptions start with an invocation of Lord Vishnu. Madhukesvara temple built by Kadambas is considered as their family deity. Many records like the Kudalur, Sirsi records speak of grants made by them to scholarly Brahmins as well as made to Buddhist viharas.

The Kadambas also patronised Jainism. Several of the latter Kadamba kings adopted the Jainism, and built numerous Jain Basadis (temples) that are scattered around Banavasi, Belgaum, Mangalore and Goa. Kadamba Kings and Queens supported the literature, arts and liberal grants to temples and educational institutions. Adikavi Pampa highly spoke of this kingdom in his writings.

“Kadambotsava” or “The festival of Kadamba” feted every year by the Karnataka Government in remembrance of Kadamba empire.

Tambdi Surla temple

Architecture:
The contribution of the Kadambas to the architectural heritage of Karnataka is certainly worthy of recognition. The Kadamba style can be identified, but has a few things in common with the Chalukyan and the Pallava styles and some architectural tradition of the Satavahanas. The most prominent feature of their architecture their Shikara called Kadamba Shikara. The Shikara is pyramid shaped and rises in steps without any decoration with a Stupika or Kalasha at the top. The architecture of Shikara is used several centuries later in the Doddagaddavalli Hoysala temple and the Mahakuta temples at Hampi. Temples use perforated screen windows which is pointed out in architecture and sculpture which Kadambas contributed to the foundation of the later Chalukya-Hoysala style.

The Madhukeshwara temple (temple of Shiva) still exists in Banavasi which is built by Kadambas in 10th century and renovated many times. It is a very good piece of art. The stone cot with wonderful carvings is one of the main tourist attractions in the temple.
Doddagaddavalli Hoysala temple, the Mahakuta temples in Hampi, the Madhukeshwara (Lord Shiva) temple in Banavasi are noteworthy.






Kadamba Kingdom of Banavasi (345-525)
Banavasi is an ancient temple town in Uttara Kannada District bordering Shivamogga district in the south Indian state of Karnataka having main attraction of Madhukeshwara Temple built in the 9th century and dedicated to Lord Shiva the supreme God in Shaivism which is known as a major branch of Hinduism.

Recently a 5th century copper coin was discovered here with an inscription in the Kannada script which is considered as a one of the oldest coin ever discovered. The Directorate of Archaeology and Museums said that the coin's inscription in archaic Kannada proves beyond doubt that Banavasi had a mint in the 5th century. The coin's discovery supports those seeking classical status for the Kannada language.

Adikavi Pampa, the first poet of Kannada, wrote his epic poems in Banavasi.
The town once was the capital of the Kadamba rulers, an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka. They established themselves there in A.D. 345 and ruled for two centuries.


Mayurasharma/ Mayurasharman/ Mayuravarma) (345 - 365 C.E)
According to Talagunda inscription Mayurasharma was a Vaidika Brahmin scholar who belonged to an orthodox Brahmana family which derived its descent from Hariti and belonged to the Manavya Gotra. The family was deeply devoted to the Vedic studies and the performance of Vedic sacrifices. The Kadamba tree that grew near their house gave the family its name. He was the son of Bandhushena, grandson of his guru (teacher) Veerasharma and a student at the Agrahara (place of learning) in Talagunda(in modern Shimoga district). The Gudnapur inscription further confirms Mayurasharma's parentage and that he acquired the character of a Kshatriya. He was the founder of the Kadamba Kingdom of Banavasi. It was the earliest native kingdom to rule over state Karnataka.

Talagunda inscription also tells that Mayurasharma went to Kanchi the capital of the Pallavas to pursue his Vedic studies accompanied by his guru and grandfather Veerasharma. Kanchi was an important Ghatikasthana (centre of learning) at that time. There, having been humiliated by a Pallava guard (horseman), in a rage Mayurasharma gave up his Brahminic studies and took to the sword to avenge which can be concluded as a successful rebellion of Brahmins against the domination of the Kshatriya power as wielded by the Pallavas of Kanchi.

Mayurasharma first succeeded in establishing himself in the forests of Shriparvata (possibly modern Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh) by defeating the Antharapalas (guards) of the Pallavas and subduing the Banas of Kolar. The Pallavas under Skandavarman were unable to contain Mayurasharma and recognised him as a sovereign in the regions from the Amara Ocean (Western Ocean) to Prehara (Malaprabha River). Some historians feel that Mayurasharma was initially appointed as a commander (dandanayaka) in the army of the Pallavas, as the inscription uses such terms as Senani and calls Mayurasharma Shadanana (six-faced god of war). After a period of time, due of the confusion caused by the defeat of Pallava Vishnugopa by Samudragupta (Allahabad inscriptions), Mayurasharma formed his kingdom at Banavasi (near Talagunda) as his capital. It is also known that in other battles, Mayurasharma defeated the Traikutas, Abhiras, Sendrakas, Pallavas, Pariyathrakas, Shakasthana, the Maukharis and Punnatas.

To celebrate his successes, Mayurasharma performed many horse sacrifices and granted 144 villages (known as Brahmadeyas) to Brahmins of Talagunda. With an effort to rejuvenate the ancient Brahminic faith and to perform the royal rituals and the related functions of the empirical government, Mayurasharma invited many learned Vaidika Brahmins from Ahichchathra in northern India. The Havyaka Brahmins claim descent from these early Brahmin settlers of the 4th century.

Kangavarma (365 - 390)
Mayurasarma was succeeded by his son Kangavarma in C.365 A.D.He changed the family name from Sharma to Verma. He had to suffer the discomfiture of losing a portion of the Kuntala to the powerful Vakatakas.

Bagitarha (390 - 415)
He was Kangaverma’s son and successor of Kadambas. He is said to have retrieved the losses of the family, although the Vakataka inscriptions do not substantiate this proud claim.

Raghu (415 - 435)
Bagitarha’s son Raghu succeeded him, and after a hectic rule is said to have lost his life in a contest against the Pallavas. He died childless.

Kakusthavarma (435 - 455)
Raghu’s younger brother, Kakustha Varma succeeded him. He had functioned as a Yuvaraja, came to the throne. Dr. G. M. Moraes thinks that under him the "Kadamba Empire reached the acme of its greatness". The Talagunda inscription hails him as "the ornament of the Kadamba Family". He is described as a "formidable warrior" who defied every danger. His political influence is reflected in the fact that he was able to conclude matrimonial alliances with many prominent ruling families of the day. The Talagunda inscription states that he maintained such relationship with the imperial Guptas. It is possible that Kakusthavarma's daughter was married to Kumara Gupta's son, Skanda Gupta. His daughter Ajjhitabhattarika was married to the Vakataka ruler, Narendrasena. Similar alliances were concluded with the Bhatari chief, the Alupas and the Gangas. It extended the Kadamba influence among a number of ruling powers. The Halsi plates and the Hamidi inscription refer to the abilities, industry and magnanimity of Kakusthavarma, and tributes to his greatness.

After Kakusthavarma, the Kadamba Kingdom was divided between his two sons, Santivarma and Krishna Varma I, who commenced their independent rule simultaneously at Banavasi and Triparvata respectively.

Santivarma (455 -460)
Santivarma was associated with his father's administration, had a brief reign.

Mrigeshavarma (460 - 480)
He was the eldest son of Santivarm and the successor. . He crossed his sword against the Gangas and the Pallavas, married a princess from the Kekeyi family, and earned a reputation as impartial administrator of justice.


Shivamandhativarma (480 – 485)
After the death of Mrigeshavarma his brother Shivamandhativarma acted as a regent to the Mrigeshavarma’s son Ravivarma.


Ravivarma (485 – 519)
He was the son of Mrigeshavarma and the successor who came to the throne in C. 485 A. D. His rule was marked by a series of clashes against the Triparvata branch of the family, and also against the Pallavas and the Gangas. He is also credited with a victory against the Vakatakas, which extended his Kingdom as far north as the river Narmada and consisted of most of Karnataka, Goa and Southern areas of present day Maharashtra.

Harivarma (519 – 525)
After the death of Ravivarma in C. 519, he was succeeded by his son Harivarma. Harivarma’s brief, undistinguished rule was brought to an end by Krishnavarma II of the Triparvata line. But, by then, the Kadamba power had been considerably weakened by many political and economic forces, and was soon eclipsed by the growing power of the Chalukyas and the Pallavas. He was a contemporary of the Chalukyan king Pulakeshi who set up his kingdom at Badami.






kingdom of Triparvatha
Capital Triparvata founded by Krishna Varma is identified as Halebid by Dr. G. M. Moraes and as Murgod in Belgaum district by K. P. Pathak.

Krishnavarma I (455)
He was the son of Kakushtavarma. He was the founder of Triparvata branch of the Kadambas, who was an energetic and a successful ruler. He performed the Aswamedha sacrifice.

Vishnuvarma( 445-475), Simhavarma(475-510) and Krishna Varma II (510-540)
After Krishnavarma I, rulers like Vishnuvarma, Simhavarma and Krishnavarma II managed the affairs of the Triparvata branch. They fought wars against the Banavasi branch, which must have led to considerable exhaustion, and that in turn, led to the decline of the Kadamba power. Krishnavarma defeated Harivarma of the Kadambas and merged the families. He was killed by Pulakeshi.

Ajayvarma (540-550)
Ajayvarman had to submit to Chalukya king Pulakeshi. He was having two sons Bhogivarma and VishwavarmaII.

This was the end of Kadamba kingdom. Bhogivarma and Vishwavarma II however continued as individual chiefs, feudatories.






File:Hangal Tarakeshwara temple half (back).jpg
Hangal Tarakeshwara Temple

Kadambas of Hangal (980-1031)
Hangal was also called as Hanungal. It is a town in Haveri district in the state of Karnataka. It is on the left bank of the Dharma River, and has ruins of some fortification on the river bank. The town has a huge Tarakeshwara temple as well as other temples like Ganesha temple, Virabhadra, Billeshwara and Ramalinga are the important temples, and a famous Veerashaiva Kumaraswami matha.

Hangal was the capital of the Hangal Kadambas. It is mentioned as Panungal in early records and identified by tradition with Viratanagara of Mahabharata days.

Introduction:
Chattadeva was the founder of Kadambas of Hangal. He was a feudatory of the western Chalukyas. The Western Chalukyas (in 973) rose to power by defeating the Rashtrakutas with the help of Kadambas. Then Kadambas chief Chatta Deva was allowed by Taila II to rule Banavasi, he (during 980 - 1031 AD), consolidated his domain in the western Tungabhadra river basin under Chalukya shelter.

Chatta Deva’s successors enjoyed considerable independence and were almost sovereign rulers of Goa and Konkan till 14th century AD. The successors of Chatta Deva occupied both Banavasi and Hangal and are known as Kadambas of Hangal.

Hangal attained significance under the Kalyani Chalukyas who were the chief powers in the Deccan (10th - 12th century), and was later comes under the Hoysalas with the decline of the Chalukyas. Bileshwara temple at hangal is in the Hoysala style.

Kadambas started reigning the upper part of Tungabhadra basin from its capital in Banavasi soon after the Chutus were thrown out of power. Around 5th century, they had their capital at Dwarasmudra and had expanded the terriroty to Cauvery basin. Their northern frontier was bordered to the river Krishna. At around 530 AD, they lost part of their region to the feudatory Pulakesin –I, the Chalukya of Badami. It was during Ajayvarma Kadamba, they were made to acknowledge their suzerainty to the Chalukyas. In 607 AD, the Kadambas were extinguished by Pulakeshi II and thur earlier Kadamba dynasty ceased to exist once for all, either leaving no traces of their coinage or with the unattributed coins.


Kadambas of Hangals rulers:
Irivabedangadeva (967-980)
Irivabedangadeva was a feodary of Chalukyas. He distinguished himself against Rashtrakutas. He re-established Kadamba dynasty.

Chattadeva (980-1031)
Chattadeva was the son of Irivabedabgadeva. He distinguished himself against Cholas.

Jayasimha (1031-1037)
Jayasimha was the son of Chattadeva, married to Akkadevi from the Chalukya kings. He lost his life in one of the battles against the Cholas.

Mayurvarma II (1037-1048)
Mayurvarma II was the son of Jayasimha. Reigned peacedfully. Died Childless.

Toyimadeva or Taila I (1048-1075)
Brother of Mayurvarma. He helped to rule by his mother Akkadevi. He fought against the Cholas. During Toyimadeva's (Taila) reign, the capital was moved from Banavasi to Hangal. He issued first die struck gold coins. These coins are similar in weight and size to Kadambas of Goa. Compared to Goa Kadambas, coins of Kadambas of Hangal are relatively scarce and never been studied in greater details.

Kirtivarma(1075-1116)
Son of Taila I. He was previously governor of Banavasi, and became the ruler of Banavasi. He fought against his uncle Santivarma, eventually reconciled for Banavasi. He fought and lost against combined might of Kadambas of Goa and Chalukyas, when he tried to extend his boundries and ended up becoming a feudatory of Chalukyas.

Shantivarma or Santivarma (1075-1094)
He was the youngest brother of Taila I at Hangal, had a dispute with his brother’s son Kirtivarma. However he continued as ruler of Hangal after intervention of the Goa Kadamba king Jayakeshi I. Kirtivarma was given Banavasi.

Taila II (1094-1116)
Son. After the death of Kirtivarma of Banavasi, Taila II remerged both the kingdoms of Hangal and Banavasi. He formed a alliance with Pandya's of Uchchangi through marital knot, which further empowered him to sustain his power against Hoysala's troubles atleast for some time. But later, Vishnuvardhana Hoysala battled with him and captured both Banavasi and Hangal. He assisted the Pandyas against Hossala, Pandyas lost and the Hoysala (Vishnuvardhana) ire fell on Kadambas. They captured Banavasi and late Hangal. Taila-II was put to death by Vishnuvardhana and Pandyas of Uchchangi ceased to exist anymore.

Taila III (1116-1130)
Son. Resistance against Hoysala continued.

Mayurvarma III (1130-1132)
Son.

Mallikarjuna(1132-1146)
Brother. Hoysala drove out the Hoysalas.

Tailama (1146-1151)
Brother.

Kirtideva (1151-1180)
Son.

Kamadeva (1180-1217)
Son. There was a battle between Kalachuri and Hoysalas which was strong enough to deteriorate their powers, and Kamadeva was a opportunist to ascend the throne independently. Later, during Chalukya's restoration, he acknowledged the suzerainty to Chalukyas. But the subsequent fall of Chalukyas by the Yadavas made him to change over the acknowledgement of suzerainty to Yadavas. In 1310, the crushing defeat of Yadavas in the hand of Ala-al-din Mohammad Khilji, the Yadavas ceased to exist and so the Kadambas of Hangal. Kadamba family was still in picture by ruling ruins of the kingdom, as witnessed by the inscriptions which mentions the ruler Purandara of Hangal Kadamba family.

Mallideva (1217-1252)
Son.

Ramadeva (1252-1260)
Brother

Kavadeva (1260-1315)
Nephew. Son of Mallideva.

Purandara raya (1315-1347)
Son.




Kadambas of Goa:
Introduction:
It was a sub branch that ruled Goa for around 300 years during the reign of Kadambadynasty in early 11th century, minted one of the finest example of medieval Indian coinage. The rulers of this dynasty often took the title, Malava-rama-ri which means rulers/conquerors of Malava (perhaps Malvan region of Konkan).

During this time Goa took shape as a distinct political entity for the first time. There were fourteen rulers amongst the Kadambas of Goa, which were Guhaaldeva III, Jayakeshi II, Shivachitta, Vishnuchitta, Jayakeshi III.

Under Jayakeshi II the Kadamba rule reached its peak and this is testified by the gold coins that are stamped with their lion crest. Until 1310 Chandrapur was made their capital and after that it was shifted on the banks of the Zuari River to a new port city called Govepure or Gopakapattanam Today’s Goa Velha where the ruins of their port still exist. After the death of Jayakeshi III, the Kadambas of Goa became vassals of the Yadavas of Devagiri Yadavas appointed a puppet king in Goa by the name of Kamadeva who managed to survive till 1313 AD. Kadambas lost power in 1334 AD. For six years there was chaos until the Bahamani muslim rulers annexed Goa.

List of Kadambas of Goa
Kantakacharya
He was a Chalukyan feudatory

Nagarvarma
Nagavarma was son and successor of Kantakacharya. He was proficient in political science and Vedas.

Guhaladeva I
Son. He was a powerful king and was an ally of south Silharas.

Shasthadeva I or Chaturbhuja(996-980)
Son. Contemporary of Irivabedanga of Hangal Kadamba. He fought along with Chalukyas and the other Kadambas against Rashtrakutas. His capital was Chandrapura or Chandor.

Guhaladeva II (980-1005)
Son. He extended boundries towards the Western Ghats.

Shasthadeva II (1005-1050)
Son. Captured Konkan, Goa from the Northern Silhars and made them his vassals.

Jayakeshi I (1050-1080)
Son. Made Gopakapattana (Goa) his capital after killing the rebel N.Silhara king of Kapardidwipa. Defeated the Chandas and the Cholas. His daughter was married to Chalukya king Vikramaditya.

Guhaladeva III (1080-1100)
Son.

Vijayaditya I (1100-1104)
Son.

Jayakeshin II (1104-1147/8)
Son. Many conquests Kadamba Goa rule at its zenith.

Permadi (1147/8-1181)
Son.

Vijayaditya II (1147/8-1187/8)
Brother

Jayakeshin III (1187/8-1216)
Son. Vassals of Yadavas of Devagiri.

Tribhuvanamalla
Brother?

Shasthadeva III
Son. A daughter married to Kamadeva (1260-1310)
Son ? (1310/1-1328)
Son? (1328-1340)






Kadambas of Bayalnad

Kadamba Bayalnad emerged as a rule in the 11th century. The Cholas had just then subdued the Gangas of Talakad and brought their dynasty to an end. Kadambas under their chief Raviyammarasa seem to have formed for themselves an independent kingdom in Bayalnad. One of these kings made the city of Kirttipura in Punnad Ten thousand their capital as per one inscription. This province which lays claim to a well-known antiquity thus became the principality of the Kadmbas.

Kadambas of Bayalnad bore all the titles that usually accompany Kadamba rulers like mahamandalesvara rajadhiraja, means from royal dynasty. They were independent kings. Inscriptions attribute to them the lion seal, the monkey flag and the bull signet, the last of which was the dynastic symbol of Pallavas.

Their kings style himself “the boon lord of Dvaravatipura”. This city was the last capital of Hoysala Monarchs, known in the history as Dvarasmudra or Dorasamudra which was Triparvata.

Raviyammarasa
He was the first ruler of the dynasty; the period was end of the tenth century and the beginning of the eleventh. We do not hear of any successors of Raviyammarasa for a period of seventy years. This long gap in their history is perhaps due to the fact that they were defeated and disposed of their kingdom by the Cholas.

With the fall of Cholas however the Kadambas of Bayalnad again appear as rulers of their old province. Ancient city of Kirttipura was the capital of the Kadambas of Bayalnad.

Kadavamma (1079/83)
Kadavamma ruled over a fairly extensive kingdom. It extended in the east as far as Budapadi which is probably Budikote in Betmangala Taluqua, Kolar District. In the north it included kikki-nad, with probably kikere in the Mysore district for its capital; in the west it seems to have embraced part of Kerala and in the south it stretched into the Tamil country, of which division Terumangala was the administrative headquarters.

The sudden emergence of the kadambas as rulers of this vast kingdom in the south is not at all strange; however Kandavamma gathered the scattered remnants of the old and fallen Chola Empire, and brought them under this royal scepter.


Kanthirava (1090)
He was the successor and son of kandavarmma. He has described as a ruling Chagi-Bayalnad. The vast kingdom was reduced in size by incessant encroachments pf the Hoysala chiefs.

Iravi-Challamma(1108)
He was the successor. He is associated with the government of Bira-Bayalnad, which was another part of the Bayalnad province.

Mahamandalesvara Mukkanna Kadamba was the last rule of this line with which history is acquainted.
Information later Kadambas of Bayalnad is not available after this for centuries until the name of a feudatory chieftain (Sangama Dynasty, Vijaynagar), by the name of Immadi Kadamba Raya Vodeyayya appears.





Kadambas of Belur
It was a branch of Kadamba dynasty that profited by the decline of the power of the Gangas in the beginning of the 11th century. This dynsty is generally known as the Dynasty of the Manjarabad Kadambas. The old Kadamba ruler of this province had their capital little westwards at a place now called Hale-Belur. Kadambasara was the first king of this line seems to have availed himself of the weakness of the central government to establish an independent kingdom to the east of the Ganga dominions. He was very likely a descendant of the old Kadamba line of the Dakshinapatha, Belur Kadambas were closely related to this branch.

The Kadambas of Belur were the ancestors of the Rajas of Coorg. The puranic account of the foundation of the state and Monarchy of Coorg, given in the kaveri-Mahatmya connects it with a prince named Chandravarmma the son of a king of the Matsya country, who was succeeded by his son Deva-kanta. Now Matsya has been identified with Hangal, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that Chandravarmma was a Kadamba prince. He was probably the son of Krishnavarmma II who after transferring his government to Banavasi, appointed Chandravarmma viceroy of the Dakshinapatha, of which Triparvata was the capital. During the weak rule of Ajavarmma, this Chandravarmma probably freed himself of the control of the Banavasi ruler and established heredity succession at Tripura.

The Kadambas of Belur had the usual titles of the Kadambas. They were called mahamandalesvaras, the boon-lords of Banavasipura. They were worshipper of Shiva. Their dynastic symbol seems to have been the peacock.

Kadambasara (1000 A.D.)
First king of Kadambas of Belur lineage.

Niti-maharaja (1015?-1035)
He was the successor of Kadambasara. He passed away on A.D.1035.

Changinripala (1035-1070)
Successor.

Dudharasa (died in 1095)
He was the next successor of Belur. And can be concluded as an independent king by the inscriptions. He was having two queens. His first queen Chilkala-devi requested him to built a Chatram for the Brahmans and brought some uncultivated land under cultivation. His second wife was mother of his three sons, stthiga-nripa, Changi-maharaja, and Dayasimha. She was daughter of Banki-Balarita and Karavati Cheluveyarasi. He was succeeded by his youngest son Dayasimha.

Dayasimha
He acknowledged the suzerainty of the Chalukyas, and bore the title of Tribhuvanamalla. This indicates that he was the feudatory of the latter.

No information about later kingdom is available. Probably the kingdom came under the Hoysala dynasty(under Vinayaditya).






Kadambas of Nagarkhanda
Nagarkhanda is the district to the north-east if Banavasi. It is described as a country surrounded with leafy woods like the ring round the eyes of a girl or noted for its betel vines, and the fruit of its areca palms and orange trees in the inscriptions.

Kadambas of Nagarkhanda claimes to be the descendents of Mayuravarmma. They have titled themselves “the boon lords of Banavasi-pura”. Their capital was Bandhavapura. Their family god was Shiva.

During the first few years the Kadambas of Hangal did not acknowledge the suzerainty o the Kalachuri kings, which led them into a war with the kadambas. So may be the reason Kalachuryas helped Soma-deva in declaring himself independent of his overlord. In an inscription of 1159 Soma-deva is mentioned as a immediate subordinate of the Kalachuryas. So may be in the course of war between the Kadambas and the Kalachuryas the latter conquered the Banavasi province and probably handed it over to Soyi-deva which was the year 1165 as per the inscription.

Kings of Kadambas of Nagarkhanda
Bammarasa
He was the first king of this branch. He was related to the main branch of Kadambas by the records of his grandson Soyi-deva. He was enjoying the independent kingdom as the record describe him as a “the sole ruler of the world”. His wife Kalala-devi was described in the inscription as “an abode of learning” and “ to her dependents a cow of plenty”.

Boppa-deva/ Boppasara (1112-1138 A.D.)
Son and successor of Bammasara. The inscription mentioned him “as in great bravery like Arjun, in liberty like Karna, in purity like Bhimsa”. In his reign the Nagarkhanda Kadambas lost their independence. A record refers of him to Tailapa II of the Hangal Kadamba dynasty as his overlord. As per the inscriptions he was partly a contemporary of Tailapa and Boppasara’s son in A.D.. 1139 survived his overlord.

Soma-deva/ Soyi-deva
Soma-deva was the son of Boppasara and Sri-devi. He was the officer in charge of the Nagarkhanda Seventy under Madhukasara of the Hangal Kadamba kings. He soon freed himself of the control of his liege lords. In an inscription of 1159, Soma-deva is noted as subordinate of the Kalachuri kingdom. An inscription connect soyi-deva with the Kalachuryas by telling us that the whole Kadamba family sprang from a Kalachurya King named Soma. He proceeded against the Santara king Jaga-deva under the orders of his over-lord Bijjala. He challenged the Changalva king and put him into chains. For his bravery he acquired the titles of Kadamba Rudra, Gandaradavani, mandalika Bhairava, Nigalanka-malla, and Satya-pataka. Malla-deva’s queen Padumala-devi having become hostile to Soyi-devi. He was having two wives, one was Lichchala-devi , who bore a son named Boppan and other wife was Malala-devi, who bore a daughter called Lichchala-devi.

Boppa-deva(1182)
He was successor of Soma-deva. During his reign the Kadambas of Nagarkhanda transferred their allegiance to the Hoysalas. The inscription of Boppa refers to Ballala as the overlord of the former. It says that Sankama-deva, the general of Boppa forces marched away and joined the king Ballala.

Brahma-bhupala
He was the son of Boppa-deva and the successor. He was the feudatory of the Hoysala king Vira-Bailala II by the inscription of 1204.

From the inscription 1207 concluded that the kingdom was deprived of their territories at about this period. The Hoysala appointed a certain Malli-deva of the Kaysapa gotra as the governor of Nagarkhanda Seventy and he made the city of Bandhavapura his capital. The family of Nagarkhanda would have a long ceased to posses this province. A grant about 1235 mentions a king named Kadambaraya probably belong to this dynasty.
In 1412, there is a reference of Madhukanna (son of Kadamba Soyidevrasa of Bandalike),his son Baicharasa ,son in law Surappa being slain in a battle. Probably they were the last of the Nagarkhanda Kadambas.



Kadambas of Uchchangi
They were only titular kings of Banavasi, as the real power was with the Hangal Kadambas (who in turn were feudatories of the Chalukyas.

Ajavarmmarasa first king in this dynasty.987-1032 AD.
Manneya Ghatiyarrasa (1049)
Bancharasa deva (1110)
Between 1110-45 the kingdom was captured by Pandyas (Tribhuvanamalla Pandya).Kadambas of Uchchcangi became their vassals.Pandyas wered defeated by the Hoysalas. After the death of Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana, Pandyas (Vijaya Pandya) reconquered the kingdom and once again made Kadambas of Uchchangi their representatives in that kingdom of Uchchangi.
Ketarasa (1146)
Nagatinripala (son)1171
Harirasa (brother)
Pandyas were again overthrown by Hoysala king Vir Ballala II, consequently eclipsing the rule of their feudatories , the Kadambas of Uchchcangi as well.



Kadambas of Kalinga
They began as small revenue officers of the Gangas but were later given large regions to administer. They ruled a small principality , Panchavishaya (region of five districts) under the overlordship of the Ganga kings of Kalinga. they also had matrimonial relations with the Gangas. They were also known as the Khedis.
Bhamakhedi AD 1054
Dharmakhedi (son)
Udayadityadeva (son)1181
Mahasamata Nagakhedi last known ruler.






Halmidi inscription with Buddhist wheel at the top.

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  5. Article was good. One of the other names of present Madurai is Kadamba vanam. Diplomatic marriages between Kingdoms took place. Marriages between Cholas/Chalukyas/Kadambas/Pandyas/Cheras were common. There is no indigenous Kannada state or Tamil state. These names are Karnataka/Tamilnadu are new terms. The language and the religion are of the mercy from then rulers. The Wodeyars of Mysore is not of Kannada origin. They are of Saurashtra (Gujarat)origin. Similarly present day Tanjavur Raja is of Marathi origin. But, it was a surprise that Kadamba King was a Brahmin

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